Kamalhasan Information

Milk and its Important

Choose Yours

Milk is a nutrient-rich food and drink that is available in many tasty and refreshing forms.

Raw Milk or Unpasteurized Milk
Raw milk, or unpasteurized milk, is illegal for sale in Canada because it can spread diseases such as salmonella and tuberculosis. All milk for sale is pasteurized. Pasteurization does not affect the nutritional quality of the milk.

Whole/Skim Milk
Whole (homo) milk contains at least 3.25% milk fat. When a portion of the milk’s fat is removed, it is called partly skimmed milk, such as 2% milk and 1% milk. Skim milk is virtually fat-free, with only about 0.1% fat. Other than the fat content, all these milks are equally nutritious.

Chocolate Milk
Chocolate milk has all the goodness of white milk with added flavour from cocoa and sugar. Store-bought ready-made chocolate milk contains no more sugar than unsweetened juice and no more caffeine than decaffeinated coffee.

Buttermilk has a tangy flavour, a smooth rich body and most often contains 1% milk fat. A "culture" is added to give buttermilk its consistency and flavour.

Other Types of Milk
Sweetened condensed Milk is made by condensing milk to one-third of its original volume and then adding sugar. The result is a very sweet thickened product.
Evaporated Milk is made by evaporating 60% of the water from whole, 2% or skim milk. The high temperature needed to sterilize the milk causes a browning reaction to occur, giving this milk a slightly darker colour.
Powdered Milk (whole or skim) is made from partly evaporated milk which is heated and dried instantly. Once the package is opened, it should be used within two months.
UHT Milk (ultra-high-temperature milk) or sterilized milk has been heat-treated for one to two seconds at 138-158°C. Unopened, it keeps for three months. Once opened, UHT milk will keep fresh as long as regular milk and should be refrigerated.
Lacteeze and LactAid 2% and skim milks contain the same nutrients as regular milk. Most of the milk sugar, called lactose, has been broken down into two sugars that are easily tolerated by those people with lactose intolerance.
Fortified milks can help consumers to meet their calcium requirements and give lower-fat choices a creamier taste. This creamier taste comes from adding milk solids such as calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrate and protein to lower-fat milks. While regular milk is a tasty and nutritious choice, calcium-fortified milks and creamier tasting lower-fat milks offer new benefits and options for consumers. Take a closer look at your expanding dairy case and read labels to determine each product’s unique benefits and nutritional content. Fortified milks are labelled as Milk Beverages. All milks, whether filtered or not, are safe and nutritious foods. Unopened, filtered milks will last up to 30 days in the fridge versus the regular 16 to 20 days. Once opened however, these milks will stay fresh as long as regular milk. Some filtered milks are marketed based on taste.
Organic milk comes from cows that are fed crops that are organically grown, and this is the main difference from regular milk. Regular and organic milks are equally safe and nutritious.
New milk packaging is becoming more convenient and appealing than ever. There are portable single serving milks with resealable plastic bottles, and milk cartons that come with a screw cap.
New flavours are expanding to include fruit flavours such as strawberry and banana, brand-name chocolate-bar flavours, and flavours such as “café au lait.” The refrigerated shelf life can be up to 60 days. However, once opened, these products stay fresh as long as regular milk. The milkshake products are not generally fortified with vitamin D.
Milk with DHA is milk that comes from cows that are fed a conventional diet that has been enriched with DHA from natural sources. This enriched diet allows cows to produce milk that is naturally higher in DHA. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid that helps develop and maintain brain, nervous system and retina health.


Chambal valley

India's Chambal Valley south of New Delhi has for nearly 1,000 years been a homeland to the feared dacoits —professional bandits for whom murder and robbery are a tradition as well as a way of life. Conventional police methods have persistently failed to control the dacoits, but twelve years ago, a saintly follower of Mahatma Gandhi —Acharya Vinoba Bhave—gently persuaded some of the bandits to give themselves up. Last week another Gandhi disciple named Jayaprakash Narayan arranged for a much larger group of dacoits to surrender voluntarily. TIME Correspondent William Stewart was the only American newsman to witness the scene and talk with the bandits. His report:
Travelers venture along the winding dirt roads of the Chambal Valley at their peril. The sharp ravines provide good hiding places for fugitives from the law. In 1971 alone, India's notorious dacoits committed 285 murders, 352 kidnapings and 213 robberies, all within an area smaller than the state of Maryland. Arable land in the valley is obviously precious, and it is not difficult to see how disputes over ownership became blood feuds when the valley's temperamental Rajputs resorted to sudden murder over real or imagined wrongs.
Police operations have sometimes been massive—at one point more than 2,000 policemen were searching for a bandit named Man Singh—but never very successful. The campaigns were frustrated as much by the local people, who regard the bandits as baghis (rebels) rather than thieves, as by the cunning of the dacoit gangs. The bandits, many of whom like to take from the rich and give to the poor in Robin Hood tradition, carefully cultivate local good will, rewarding villagers with presents at weddings. But they are also ruthless in eliminating suspected informers.
At a government guesthouse in the village of Jaura, deep in dacoit country, I talked with Jayaprakash Narayan, 69, director of the Gandhi Institute of Studies and once a prominent Socialist politician. He is a man of simple and transparent goodness. Last October, Narayan told me, he had been visited by a man claiming to be a lesser dacoit. The visitor pleaded with him to come to the Chambal Valley and negotiate the bandits' surrender.
Police pressure was increasing and could only mean more bloodshed. Narayan remained unmoved until the bandit admitted that he was really Madho Singh, 35, one of India's most wanted men, with a price of $21,000 on his head. Singh said that the dacoits were ready to surrender if the government would promise not to hang any of the men, to prosecute within six months, and to rehabilitate their families. Impressed, Narayan agreed to undertake the task.
Along a dirt road outside Jaura is the Gandhian ashrama known as the Change of Heart Mission. Under a makeshift but colorful tent, we lunched on vegetables and rice served on plates of dried banyan leaves. There I met a former bandit whom Vinoba Bhave had persuaded to surrender. "Did you ever kill anyone?" I asked. "Naturally. I killed policemen," he answered. "How many?" "If I asked you how many pieces of bread you've eaten in the past two months, could you tell me?"
After lunch, a guide took us to the bandits' staging camp at Gherora. Despite the 105° heat, the village was thronged with people who had come to see the dacoits and the surrender ceremonies. In a tiny room atop one of the houses we found Madho Singh. A tall, lithe figure, he was dressed in a police uniform and carried an automatic rifle. Asked if he had qualms about surrendering, Madho Singh said: "Whatever we say we'll do, we go ahead with it, even if it means death for us. Sometimes we are scared of jail, but we remember that our great national leaders underwent the same incarceration. I tell the rebels who are scared of jail to think of it as a house you have rented. You don't even have to pay the rent." Almost shyly, Madho Singh admitted that he liked to write poetry and planned to write a book on the Chambal Valley in prison.
The next morning, before a crowd of 10,000, Madho Singh mounted the raised public platform, placed his weapon at the feet of Narayan and asked the crowd for forgiveness. His mustache was gone and so was the police uniform. Then he touched the feet of the police chief, and surrendered. At the end of the day, 167 dacoits were in jail. Said Narayan: "They are all like children."
The Indian government is reluctant to reveal what kind of deal it made with the bandits, but it is believed to have promised commutation of all death sentences the courts might hand down. It will also assume care of dacoit families and provide scholarships for their children. At week's end, New Delhi indicated that it would undertake a $170 million redevelopment program for the Chambal Valley, aimed at countering the desperate poverty that led many of the dacoits to lives of violence.

Biosphere resources

Biosphere resources (LAWUNIVERSITY)

Mountain environments cover some 27 percent of the world's land surface and support 22 percent of the world's population. Over 26.5 thousand national protected areas (PAs) and internationally designated sites preserve mountain ecosystems biodiversity worldwide, including 10.5 thousand European sites.
According to the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), there are 1879 national parks (NP) and 300 biosphere reserves (BR) in the world, where mountain ecosystems are present. There are 162 such NP and 88 BR in Europe.
Global statistic identified that the coverage of protected areas in mountainous regions is higher than average for terrestrial environment and is gradually increasing. This general positive message may not be entirely sufficient for decision-making because of the complexity of PA systems, e.g. overlaps of the sites established by different national agencies or by different international initiatives.
Conservation regimes within national parks and biosphere reserve zones may also vary considerably. Large mountain reserves may include waste areas of barren lands and only limited parcels of productive key habitats.
These factors may lead to overestimation of the total coverage or exaggeration of sufficiency of PAs support towards long-term ecosystems sustainability. It is particularly relevant to highly mosaic mountainous environment where humans and wildlife often compete for resources concentrated in rather narrow localities.
In these circumstances both territorial design of the new PAs may be affected and effective site management become complicated. Biosphere reserves system and conservationists working in BRs provide invaluable contribution to inventory, assessment, monitoring of biodiversity and other valuable resources contained within and preserved by BRs.
They also play a major role in communicating this knowledge to the decision makers, local communities and broader audience. Further optimisation of PA networks depends on the ability to apply site-level knowledge in a broader (ecological zones, national, regional or global) context.
Weighting the uniqueness or relative representation of valuable resources preserved within PAs against abundance or extent of similar features outside of protected areas allows identification of new sites in need of protection. It also provides additional justifications for resource allocation towards an effective management of existing PAs.
Methods allowing cross-referencing and analytical interpretation of information on biodiversity held within individual PAs and PA networks, ecologically defined regions or administrative units, countries and broader regions have been elaborated within a number of global and regional gap analyses studies, Pan-European Ecological Network study and within similar sub-regional projects.

Man & Biosphere ProgrammeGlobal network of internationally recognised ecosystems designated as biosphere reserves, currently numbering 507 sites in 102 countries. Reserves exist in all countries served by Star Alliance airlines, and in many they include World Heritage Sites and Ramsar Wetlands.

The World Conservation Union – IUCN

The World Conservation Union (IUCN) brings together governments, more than 800 NGOS, and 10,000 scientists and experts from 181 countries in a unique worldwide partnership. Created in 1948 and supported by 1,000 staff in more than 60 countries, IUCN is the world’s largest environmental network for dialogue,science and action on sustainable development.

The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
Designated Wetlands of International Importance – over 1,600 wetland sites, covering over 150 million hectares recognised under the Ramsar Convention – an inter-governmental treaty signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971 with over 150 member countries. More sites are added almost daily, and new countries are joining as well.

Contests Sites List


Some Legal Affairs Sites

Legal Affairs:

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Raja Hindusthani

kaho na pyar hai

Koi Mil gaya

Mohra_Tho Cheze pade

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Hare Ram Hare Krishna Akshay Kumar full song

Active Directory Questions?


What is Active Directory?
What is the campus Windows AD Domain?

What is a forest?

What is a tree?

What departments should consider joining the AD domain?

How can I do a remote install of an operating system?

What is the purpose of the AD password reset?

Can I have my own AD infrastructure?

How do I prepare to join the AD domain?

What Operating Systems are supported on the AD domain?

What is an Organizational Unit (OU)?

What is inheritance, and how does it work?

How do I administer my OU?
Can departments block ou's on their parent?


What is Active Directory?
The Windows directory service that stores information about all objects on the computer network and makes this information easy for administrators and users to find and apply. With the Active Directory, users can gain access to resources anywhere on the network with a single logon. Similarly, administrators have a single point of administration for all objects on the network, which can be viewed in a hierarchical structure.

What is the campus Windows AD Domain?
Active Directory is the directory service in a Windows network. The directory service stores information about network resources and makes the resources accessible to users and applications. Andrew Windows includes the ad.cmu.edu forest root domain. This is the top level naming structure. Andrew Windows also includes the andrew.ad.cmu.edu domain within the forest.

What is a forest?
A forest refers to an organizational structure that is a group of one or more trusted Windows trees. A forest shares a schema and global catalog servers. A single tree can also be called a forest.

What is a tree?
A tree is basically a domain or domains connected together in a hierarchy. The trees are linked together via a two-way transitive trust, sharing a common schema, configuration, and global catalog.

What departments should consider joining the AD domain?
For departments running Netware, this is a great migration strategy. Departments interested in single sign-on andrew accounts, cross-departmental information sharing, automating machine installs via RIS and GPO's, NT4 departments, domains with limited support personnel, and departments running stand-alone Windows 2000 or 2003 Servers are some of the reasons to consider the AD domain.

How can I do a remote install of an operating system?
Many newer computers support the PXE standard that is built in the latest network adapters that will let you install an operating system. Because no CD is required you can build many machines much faster. You can also have software deployed that you've defined in a Group Policy Object.

What is the purpose of the AD password reset?
If you are accessing an Active Directory resource (such as a shared folder) from a non-Kerberos computer (Win9x, WinNT) or a non-domain machine, you are required to reset your Active Directory password. Client Machines use Kerberos referrals to get credentials from the Andrew UNIX KDC's.Therefore, machines that can not understand the Kerberos referrals need to directly set the Active Directory password.

Can I have my own AD infrastructure?
DNS Support for External Forests will be available via NetReg, and the forest structure will reside under "win.cmu.edu". Send Domain request to netdev@andrew.cmu.edu; Specifing Domain name (e.g. example.win.cmu.edu) andDomain Controllers (e.g. dc1.example.win.cmu.edu, dc2.example.win.cmu.edu).

How do I prepare to join the AD domain?
You must have administrative access to a Departmental Organizational Unit (OU). To request an Organizational Unit (OU) for your department send Email to advisor@andrew.cmu.edu. You will also want to refer the documents available on this website.

What Operating Systems are supported on the AD domain?
Only modern Windows computers and servers are permitted to be part of the AD domain.

What is an Organizational Unit (OU)?
A Windows OU is an organization unit (a directory container) for grouping similar accounts or machines. OUs are used to provide a means of delegating authority over a group of accounts or machines to a person (the local administrator).

What is inheritance, and how does it work?
Group Policy is passed down from parent to child containers within a domain, which you can view by using the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in tool. If you assign a specific Group Policy setting to a high-level parent container, that Group Policy setting applies to all containers beneath the parent container, including the user and computer objects in each container. You can block policy inheritance at the domain or organizational-unit level by opening the properties dialog box for the domain or organizational unit and selecting the Block Policy inheritance check box.

How do I administer my OU?
From a computer that is on the AD domain you will install the the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in tool. The tool is located on the Windows Server installation CD in the \i386 directory. Run adminpak.msi to install it.

Can departments block ou's on their parent?
Group Policy Objects applied at a parent level in Active Directory will be applied to all child objects. Currently, there is one Group Policy Objects being applied at the Domain level of the tree. The Andrew Core GPO configures domain machines to function with the core Andrew Kerberos applications (e.g. NiftyTelnet, KerbFTP, Oracle Calendar, Mulberry) and is inherited by all machines in the Andrew Domain.
You can block Top Level Group Policy Objects from being applied at the Organizational Unit (OU) level. Blocking prevents inheritance of GPO's from parent objects, but they can still be explicitly assigned at the Organizational Unit (OU) level.

Water resources in india
The abundant water resources in India are sufficient for the water supply in whole of India only if proper and efficient water supply management is adopted. The water infrastructure in India includes tapping of the available water sources by the water board and department in India, proper water treatment and purification, water storage facilities with regular cleaning of the water storage tanks, usage of water, crisis in water supply, water pollution, problems due to scarcity of water, Indian water policy for water conservation and water harvesting etc.

Water Resources in India:

The water sources in India include the vast oceans surrounding the Indian peninsula - Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, the inland rivers - both the Himalayan rivers and the rivers in the south, ground water and rain water available in plenty through the abundant monsoons in India. The problem area here is the water resources management, where India fails. The management of water resources and sources in India is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water Resources India. It looks after the water management services in India, the issues and problems related to the water supply in India, arrangement of abundant water supply facilities, methods all over India, formulating the water supply policies and strategies for an equated supply and division of water resources of India.

Water Management Policies of GoI

The Government of India (GoI) has formed various water management systems and authorities in India. These include Central Water Commission, Central Ground Water Board, National Water Development Agency, National Projects Construction Corporation Ltd. etc. for efficient water resources management. The policies thus formulated include Irrigation Management Policy, National Policy Guidelines to allocate water resources like rivers flowing through multiple states, National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development Plan, Water Information Bill, River Basin Organization Policy, and many more. Various water reservoir projects were also taken up by the Ministry of Water Resources like construction and management of dams on various rivers.

Water Supply in India:

Continuous water supply is the requirement of every industry in India. India being a primarily agriculture-based society requires huge amounts of water sources for regular irrigation of the farms as the monsoons are not a reliable water source considering the vast geographical as well as climatic variations in India.Also safe drinking water supply is another area where the government needs to emphasize more as groundwater is not an everlasting water resource. The water quality is tested at regular intervals and only if the water quality standards fulfill certain quality parameters, the water is certified to be safe for drinking.

Water Conservation:

The Indian government provided the masses with adequate water supply but the management of the water supply systems wasn't undertaken efficiently this has resulted in deteriorating condition of the water supply network. Thus majority is forced to pump out ground water to fulfill the water requirements that has in turn created a huge drop in the ground water levels.Thus an effective strategy for water conservation is the need of the hour. The steps taken in this regard include water treatment plants, water pollution control so as to keep the water resources safe for other usage, careful scrutiny of water supply division and projects. The water supply department by adopting timely conservation methods can help solve the water shortage problem in India and deal with the ongoing water crisis in India.Rainwater harvesting can also provide a solution to the water crisis in India. Certain areas in India receive plenty rainfall and thus creating huge rainwater harvesting water tanks can help is accumulation of natural water and then after some treatment can be utilized as a drinking water substitute.

Water Purification Industry

Large-scale water treatment is being undertaken so as to utilize the existing water resources to an optimum level. Water purification has become an industry in itself. The water purification industry in India deals in improving water quality standards of drinking water, management and treatment of ground water, bottling of mineral water available in various parts of the country and providing this bottled water throughout India as a safe drinking water solution. The major water treatment plants owners and water treatment companies in India products in the bottled water industry include Kinley, Bisleri, Aquafina, and Kingfisher etc.

Water Reservoir Dams and Projects:

As a solution to the water crisis in India, the government took up building of huge dams and water reservoirs that provided multiple solutions. The dams build on various rivers provided safety against the floods that used to frequent these rivers, effective use of natural water resource, providing irrigation facilities to the surrounding field and farms and also in the production of hydroelectricity.

The major dams and water reservoirs in India include:
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, Andhra Pradesh
Sardar Sarover Project build on river Narmada, Gujarat
Bhakra Nangal Dam build on river Sutlej, Himachal Pradesh
Gobind Sagar and Maharana Pratap Sagar Dam, Himachal Pradesh
Krishna Raja Sagara Dam on Cauvery River, Karnataka
Tunga Bhadra Dam
Neyyar Dam, Kerala
Narmada Dam Project, Madhya Project
Hirakund Dam Build on Mahanadi River, Orissa
Farakka Barrage

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Important Question & Answers

What is bridgehead server?
A bridgehead server is a domain controller in each site, which is used as a contact point to receive and replicate data between sites. For intersite replication, KCC designates one of the domain controllers as a bridgehead server. In case the server is down, KCC designates another one from the domain controller. When a bridgehead server receives replication updates from another site, it replicates the data to the other domain controllers within its site.

What is universal group membership caching?
Universal group membership caching is a feature of Windows 2003, which reduces the need of placing Global Catalog servers at all the remote locations for user authentication. The universal group membership caching feature can be enabled on any domain controller in a site. The domain controller, with universal group membership caching enabled, contacts a Global Catalog server whenever a user attempts to log on for the first time. The server then caches the user information locally and uses this information to authenticate the user the next time he attempts to log on. Note: Universal group membership caching can handle only the logon authentication part of a Global Catalog server. It is not capable of handling directory-wide queries.

What is GPO?
Group policy object (GPO) is a collection of group policy settings. It can be created using a Windows utility known as the Group Policy snap-in. GPO affects the user and computer accounts located in sites, domains, and organizational units (OUs). The Windows 2000/2003 operating system supports two types of GPOs, local and non-local (Active Directory-based) GPOs.

Network Interview Questions?

What is Active Directory schema?
What are the domain functional level in Windows Server 2003?
What are the forest functional level in Windows Server 2003?
What is global catalog server?
How we can raise domain functional & forest functional level in Windows Server 2003?
Which is the deafult protocol used in directory services?
What is IPv6?
What is the default domain functional level in Windows Server 2003?
What are the physical & logical components of ADS
In which domain functional level, we can rename domain name?
What is multimaster replication?
What is a site?
Which is the command used to remove active directory from a domain controler?
How we can create console, which contain schema?
What is trust?
What is the file that’s responsible for keep all Active Directory database?

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How to use DNS with Active Directory

Active Directory relies heavily on DNS to function, but not just any DNS. Active Directory requires the DNS service found on Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003 systems or equivalents.
Microsoft first introduced a DNS service with Windows NT Server 4.0. However, that early version of DNS from Microsoft is not capable of supporting Active Directory. Windows NT Server 4.0 DNS lacks three specific features: Service Resource Records (SRV RR), Dynamic DNS (DDNS) and Incremental Zone Transfers (IXFR). Without these DNS three features, Active Directory cannot function.
Once you've ensured that you have an Active Directory supporting version of DNS installed on your network, then you can deploy an Active Directory domain. But there is still another important consideration with regard to DNS. If your network will be connected to the Internet in some way, you need to design and prepare your internal DNS structure to support Internet access (inbound, outbound or both). You have several options, including:
Deploy a new fully qualified domain name (FQDN) hierarchy (i.e., namespace) on your internal network that is registered with the InterNIC. This means your internal LAN and the Internet have no logical distinction.
Expand an existing InterNIC registered namespace, such as one for a Web or e-mail server, and expand it to support your private network. This is basically a variation of the first option.
Use a sub-domain of an existing InterNIC registered namespace that is not currently being used on the Internet.
Use a local namespace that exists only within your private network and that is not connected to a namespace on the Internet.
Using a namespace that exists both on your private network and on the Internet is not the most secure configuration. This configuration allows malicious users to easily obtain the names of your network servers and direct attacks against them. A simple NSLOOKUP command can provide anyone with a list of your registered systems. One method to help reduce this threat is to deploy dual DNS servers. Both DNS servers should be configured with primary zone authority over your namespace. Place one of the DNS servers inside your network (i.e., inside the firewall) and include all of your domain controllers and Internet servers in that zone. Place the other DNS server outside of your network (i.e., outside the firewall), and exclude all domain controllers from its zone.
Overall the most secure DNS namespace configuration is to deploy a unique local-only namespace inside your network and not to use a FQDN that would be supported on the Internet. This will ensure that your DNS information is not accessible from outside of your network and external DNS activity would not advertise your vulnerabilities.

Active Directory Installation Wizard The tool that is used to install and remove

Active Directory Installation Wizard The tool that is used to install and remove
Active Directory. The actual name of the command that starts the wizard is
Dcpromo.exe. See also Dcpromo.exe.
Active Directory–integrated zone A primary Domain Name System (DNS) zone
that is stored in Active Directory so that it can use multimaster replication and
Active Directory security features.
Active Directory quota For domain controllers running Microsoft Windows Server
2003, a feature that determines the number of objects that can be owned in a
given directory partition by a security principal. Quotas can help prevent the
denial of service that can occur if a security principal accidentally, or intentionally,
creates objects until the affected domain controller runs out of storage space.
Active Directory Schema snap-in An administrative tool that allows you to view
and modify the Active Directory schema. You must install the Active Directory
Schema console by using the Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Administration Tools
on the Windows Server 2003 compact disc. On a domain controller, to install the
Active Directory Schema console, you simply register the Schmmgmt.dll file.
Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI) A Component Object Model (COM)–
based directory service model that allows ADSI-compliant client applications to
access a wide variety of distinct directory protocols, including Windows Directory
Services and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), while using a single,
standard set of interfaces. ADSI shields the client application from the implementation
and operational details of the underlying data store or protocol.
Active Directory Sites And Services console An administrative tool that contains
information about the physical structure of a network. Active Directory uses this
information to determine how to replicate directory information and handle service
Active Directory Users And Computers console An administrative tool designed
to perform day-to-day Active Directory administration tasks. These tasks include
creating, deleting, modifying, moving, and setting permissions on objects stored in
the directory. These objects include organizational units (OUs), users, contacts,
groups, computers, printers, and shared file objects.
ADSI See Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI).
alert A function that detects when a predefined counter value rises above or falls
below the configured threshold and notifies a user by means of the Messenger


The port numbers are divided into three ranges: the Well Known Ports,the Registered Ports, and the Dynamic and/or Private Ports.
The Well Known Ports are those from 0 through 1023.
DCCP Well Known ports SHOULD NOT be used without IANA registration.The registration procedure is defined in [RFC4340], Section 19.9.
The Registered Ports are those from 1024 through 49151 DCCP Registered ports SHOULD NOT be used without IANA registration.
The registration procedure is defined in [RFC4340], Section 19.9.
The Dynamic and/or Private Ports are those from 49152 through 65535 A value of 0 in the port numbers registry below indicates that no port has been allocated.

Hardware Questions and Answers?

What is a NETWORK?
Interconnection of two or more computers
Its types:
· Local-area networks (LAN)
Wide-area networks (WAN)
· Metropolitan-area networks (MAN)
o Campus-area networks (CAN)
Home-area networks (HAN)
HubA common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports..
SwitchIn networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments.
A device that forwards data packets along the networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP’s network.

A router acts as a junction between two or more networks to buffer and transfer data packets among them. A router is different from a switch and a hub: a router is working on layer 3 of OSI model, a switch on layer 2 and a hub on layer 1. This makes them work for different situations: a switch connects devices to form a Local area network (LAN) (which might, in turn, be connected to another network via a router).

Short form for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device that converts analog signals to digital signals and digital signals to analog signals.

A program or piece of code that is loaded onto the computer without the user’s knowledge and runs against their wishes. Viruses can also replicate themselves.

A worm is a special type of virus that can replicate itself and use memory, but cannot attach itself to other programs.

Trojan horse
Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer.

Adware or advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertising material to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used.

Spyware is a general term used to describe software that performs certain behaviors such as advertising, collecting personal information, or changing the configuration of your computer, generally without appropriately obtaining your consent first.
Unlike viruses and worms, spyware does not usually self-replicate. Like many recent viruses, however, spyware — by design — exploits infected computers for commercial gain. Typical tactics furthering this goal include delivery of unsolicited pop-up advertisements; theft of personal information (including financial information such as credit card numbers)

Anti Spyware
They can provide real time protection against the installation of spyware software on your computer. This type of spyware protection works the same way as that of anti-virus protection in that the anti-spyware software scans all incoming network data for spyware software and blocks any threats it comes across. E.g. Windows AntiSpyware, Spybot, Spy Sweeper and AVG Antispyware.

Anti Virus
A utility that searches a hard disk for viruses and removes the same if found. E.g.: Norton, McAfee, and AVG.

A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. It protects the computer from virus and other corrupted files to enter into the system.

HTML- Hyper Text Mark up Language
HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
SMTP - Simple mail transfer protocol
ISP – Internet Service Provider
Internet Browsers – Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape Navigator, Opera
Search Engines - Google, Yahoo etc.,
WWW—World Wide Web
BPO – Business Process Outsourcing
TCP/IP – Transmission control protocol/ Internet protocol
DSL – Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

Protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet.

Two types of internet connections:
Dial up connection

We can use either the phone or the internet (only one at a time).
Broadband (DSL and ADSL) connection.
We can use both the telephone and the internet simultaneously.
Short form for Internet Service Provider, a company that provides access to the Internet.
It is also called Internet Access Provider.

· Google is a search engine.
· Email client helps in viewing, sending and receiving mails. Example Microsoft outlook express.
· Operating system for networking is Windows NT.

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