First identify the chiral centers in the molecule of interest.
Then, using the Priority Rules (Cahn, Ingold and Prelog), establish the relative stereochemical priorities of the four groups attached to the chiral center of interest, which we will call X (of course it is usually a carbon). The substituents we’ll call a,b,c,d, in order of decreasing priority.
Without redrawing or otherwise manipulating the drawing:
1. Orient your right hand so that your thumb points from the chiral center X toward the lowest priority atom d along the Xd bond.
2. Try to curl the fingers of your right hand in the direction of decreasing substituent priority; you can use any ordered pair of substituents a-b, b-c (or even c-a). If you can curl your fingers in this way, the configuration of the chiral center is (R). Double check with another ordered pair of substituents.
3. If you cannot curl the fingers of your right hand from a to b, or b to c, try the whole process again with your left hand. Align your thumb so that it points from X to the lowest priority atom d, then try to curl your fingers in order of decreasing priority, e.g. from a to b. If you can do so with the left hand, the configuration of the chiral center is (S). Double check with another ordered pair of substituents. The sketches below, taken from the Grasping the Concepts of Stereochemistry, Nancy S. Barta and John R. Stille, J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71(1), 20- 23, who invented this technique, illustrate that this method works no matter how awkwardly arranged the drawing.

Leonardo Davinci

The illegitimate son of a 25-year-old notary, Ser Piero, and a peasant girl, Caterina, Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy, just outside Florence. His father took custody of the little fellow shortly after his birth, while his mother married someone else and moved to a neighboring town. They kept on having kids, although not with each other, and they eventually supplied him with a total of 17 half sisters and brothers..
Growing up in his father's Vinci home, Leonardo had access to scholarly texts owned by family and friends. He was also exposed to Vinci's longstanding painting tradition, and when he was about 15 his father apprenticed him to the renowned workshop of Andrea del Verrochio in Florence. Even as an apprentice, Leonardo demonstrated his colossal talent. Indeed, his genius seems to have seeped into a number of pieces produced by the Verrocchio's workshop from the period 1470 to 1475. For example, one of Leonardo's first big breaks was to paint an angel in Verrochio's "Baptism of Christ," and Leonardo was so much better than his master's that Verrochio allegedly resolved never to paint again. Leonardo stayed in the Verrocchio workshop until 1477 when he set up a shingle for himself.
In search of new challenges and the big bucks, he entered the service of the Duke of Milan in 1482, abandoning his first commission in Florence, "The Adoration of the Magi". He spent 17 years in Milan, leaving only after Duke Ludovico Sforza's fall from power in 1499. It was during these years that Leonardo hit his stride, reaching new heights of scientific and artistic achievement.
The Duke kept Leonardo busy painting and sculpting and designing elaborate court festivals, but he also put Leonardo to work designing weapons, buildings and machinery. From 1485 to 1490, Leonardo produced a studies on loads of subjects, including nature, flying machines, geometry, mechanics, municipal construction, canals and architecture (designing everything from churches to fortresses). His studies from this period contain designs for advanced weapons, including a tank and other war vehicles, various combat devices, and submarines. Also during this period, Leonardo produced his first anatomical studies. His Milan workshop was a veritable hive of activity, buzzing with apprentices and students.
Alas, Leonardo's interests were so broad, and he was so often compelled by new subjects, that he usually failed to finish what he started. This lack of "stick-to-it-ness" resulted in his completing only about six works in these 17 years, including "The Last Supper" and "The Virgin on the Rocks," and he left dozens of paintings and projects unfinished or unrealized (see "Big Horse" in sidebar). He spent most of his time studying science, either by going out into nature and observing things or by locking himself away in his workshop cutting up bodies or pondering universal truths.
Between 1490 and 1495 he developed his habit of recording his studies in meticulously illustrated notebooks. His work covered four main themes: painting, architecture, the elements of mechanics, and human anatomy. These studies and sketches were collected into various codices and manuscripts, which are now hungrily collected by museums and individuals (Bill Gates recently plunked down $30 million for the Codex Leicester!).
Back to Milan... after the invasion by the French and Ludovico Sforza's fall from power in 1499, Leonardo was left to search for a new patron. Over the next 16 years, Leonardo worked and traveled throughout Italy for a number of employers, including the dastardly Cesare Borgia. He traveled for a year with Borgia's army as a military engineer and even met Niccolo Machiavelli, author of "The Prince." Leonardo also designed a bridge to span the "golden horn" in Constantinople during this period and received a commission, with the help of Machiavelli, to paint the "Battle of Anghiari."
About 1503, Leonardo reportedly began work on the "Mona Lisa." On July 9, 1504, he received notice of the death of his father, Ser Piero. Through the contrivances of his meddling half brothers and sisters, Leonardo was deprived of any inheritance. The death of a beloved uncle also resulted in a scuffle over inheritance, but this time Leonardo beat out his scheming siblings and wound up with use of the uncle's land and money.
From 1513 to 1516, he worked in Rome, maintaining a workshop and undertaking a variety of projects for the Pope. He continued his studies of human anatomy and physiology, but the Pope forbade him from dissecting cadavers, which truly cramped his style.
Following the death of his patron Giuliano de' Medici in March of 1516, he was offered the title of Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect of the King by Francis I in France. His last and perhaps most generous patron, Francis I provided Leonardo with a cushy job, including a stipend and manor house near the royal chateau at Amboise.
Although suffering from a paralysis of the right hand, Leonardo was still able to draw and teach. He produced studies for the Virgin Mary from "The Virgin and Child with St. Anne", studies of cats, horses, dragons, St. George, anatomical studies, studies on the nature of water, drawings of the Deluge, and of various machines.
Leonardo died on May 2, 1519 in Cloux, France. Legend has it that King Francis was at his side when he died, cradling Leonardo's head in his arms.

Chalk Drawings from Julian Beever

Dubai Buildings

ISA Server

Microsoft's ISA Server (Internet Security and Acceleration Server) is the successor to Microsoft's Proxy Server 2.0 (see proxy server) and is part of Microsoft's .NET support. ISA Server provides the two basic services of an firewall and a Web proxy/cache server. ISA Server's firewall screens all packet circuit-level, and application-level traffic. The Web cache stores and serves all regularly accessed Web content in order to reduce network traffic and provide faster access to frequently-accessed Web pages. ISA Server also schedules downloads of Web page updates for non-peak times.
ISA Server allows administrators to create policies for regulating usage based on user, group, application, destination, schedule, and content type criteria. ISA Server is designed to work with Windows 2000 and later operating systems and to take advantage of Windows' Kerberos security. ISA Server includes a software development kit.
ISA Server comes in two editions, Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition. Standard Edition is a stand-alone server that supports up to four processors. Enterprise Edition for large-scale deployments, server array support, multi-level policy, and computers more than four processors. Licenses are based on the number of processors.


(1) The set of names in a naming system.
(2)A logical grouping of the names used within a program. Also called name scope.
(3) A library of classes in .NET.
(4) XML namespace:
In XML, a namespace is a collection of names, identified by a URI reference, that are used in XML documents as element types and attribute names. In order for XML documents to be able to use elements and attributes that have the same name but come from different sources, there must be a way to differentiate between the markup elements that come from the different sources.
(5) DNS namespace:
DNS is the name service provided by the Internet for TCP/IP . DNS is broken up into domains, a logical organization of computers that exist in a larger network. The exist at different levels and connect in a hierarchy that resembles the root structure of a tree. Each domain extends from the node above it, beginning at the top with the root-level domain. Under the root-level domain are the top-level domains, under those are the second-level domains, and on down into subdomains. DNS namespace identifies the structure of the domains that combine to form a complete domain name. For example, in the, "com" is the top-level domain, "secondary" identifies the secondary domain name (commonly a site hosted by an organization and/or business), and "sub" identifies a subdomain within the larger network. This entire DNS domain structure is called the DNS namespace. The name assigned to a domain or computer relates to its position in the namespace.

Amazing Facts_(Health & Body)

• A man named Charles Osborne had the hiccups for approximately sixty-nine years.
• 1 out of every 4 kids in the USA is overweight.
• 41% of women apply body or hand moisturizer a minimum three times a day.
• 75-90% of primary physician visits are due to stress.
• A Russian man who wore a beard during the time of Peter the Great had to pay a special tax.
• A blink lasts approximately 0.3 seconds.
• A ear trumpet was used before the hearing aid was invented by people who had difficulty hearing.
• A fetus develops fingerprints at eighteen weeks.
• A fetus starts to develop fingerprints at the age of eight weeks.
• A fetus that is four months old, will becomes startled and turn away if a light is flashed on the mother's stomach.
• A headache and inflammatory pain can be reduced by eating 20 tart cherries.
• A human embryo is smaller than a grain of rice at four weeks old.
• A kiss for one minute can burn 26.
• A little under one quarter of the people in the world are vegetarians.
• A person infected with the SARS virus, has a 95-98% chance of recovery.
• A person who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day will on average lose two teeth every ten years. • A person will burn 7 percent more calories if they walk on hard dirt compared to pavement.
• A sneeze can travel as fast as one hundred miles per hour.
• A study concludes that kids who snore do poorly in school.
• A study indicates that smokers are likely to die on average six and a half years earlier than nonsmokers. • A women from Berlin Germany has had 3,110 gallstones taken out of her gall bladder.
• A world record 328 pound ovarian cyst was removed from a woman in Galveston, Texas, in 1905.
• A yawn usually lasts for approximately six seconds.
• About twenty-five percent of the population sneeze when they are exposed to light.
• According to the American Institute of Stress, job stress approximately costs the U.S. industry over $300 billion dollars per year.
• After twenty-seven years, Betty Rubble made her debut as a Flintstones Vitamin in 1996.
• Air is passed through the nose at a speed of 100 miles per hour when a person sneezes.
• Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar were both epileptic.
• An adult esophagus can range from 10 to 14 inches in length and is one inch in diameter.
• An average adult produces about half a litre of flatulent gas per day, resulting in an average of about fourteen occurrences of flatulence a day.
• Approximately 1 -2 calorie are burned a minute while watching T.V.
• Approximately 25,000 workers died during the building of the Panama Canal and approximately 20,000 of them contracted malaria and yellow fever.
• Asthma affects one in fifteen children under the age of eighteen.
• At least 7% of all health care costs in the United States are attributed to smoking.
• At one time it was thought that the heart controlled a person's emotions, Babies that are exposed to cats and dogs in their first year of life have a lower chance of developing allergies when they grow older.
• Babies' eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.
• Being lactose intolerant can cause chronic flatulence.
• Between 12%-15% of the population is left-handed.
• Between 1997-2002, there was an increase of 228% in cosmetic procedures in the United States.
• Bile produced by the liver is responsible for making your feces a brownish, green colour.
• Brain damage will only occur if a fever goes above 107.6 degrees farenheit.
• By walking an extra 20 minutes every day, an average person will burn off seven pounds of body fat in an year.
• Carbon monoxide can kill a person in less than 15 minutes.
• Children grow faster in the springtime than any other season during the year.

Never, put your banana in the refrigerator! !!
This is interesting.
After reading this, you'll never look at a banana in the same way again.

Bananas contain three natural sugars -sucrose, fructose and glucose combined with fiber. A banana gives an instant, sustained and substantial boost of energy.
Research has proven that just two bananas provide enough energy for a strenuous 90-minute workout. No wonder the banana is the number one fruit with the world's leading athletes.
But energy isn't the only way a banana can help us keep fit. It can also help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses and conditions, making it a must to add to our daily diet.
Depression: According to a recent survey undertaken by MIND amongst people suffering from depression, many felt much better after eating a banana. This is because bananas contain tryptophan, a type of protein that the body converts into serotonin, known to make you relax, improve your mood and generally make you feel happier.
PMS: Forget the pills -eat a banana. The vitamin B6 it contains regulates blood glucose levels, which can affect your mood.
Anemia: High in iron, bananas can stimulate the production of hemoglobin in the blood and so helps in cases of anemia.
Blood Pressure: This unique tropical fruit is extremely high in potassium yet low in salt, making it perfect to beat blood pressure. So much so, the US Food and Drug Administration has just allowed the banana industry to make official claims for the fruit's ability to reduce the risk of blood pressure and stroke.
Brain Power: 200 students at a Twickenham (Middlesex) school were helped through their exams this year by eating bananas at breakfast, break, and lunch in a bid to boost their brain power. Research has shown that the potassium-packed fruit can assist learning by making pupils more alert.
Constipation: High in fiber, including bananas in the diet can help restore normal bowel action, helping to overcome the problem without resorting to laxatives.
Hangovers: One of the quickest ways of curing a hangover is to make a banana
milkshake, sweetened with honey. The banana calms the stomach and, with the help of the honey, builds up depleted blood sugar levels, while the milk soothes and re-hydrates your system.
Heartburn: Bananas have a natural antacid effect in the body, so if you suffer from heartburn, try eating a banana for soothing relief.
Morning Sickness: Snacking on bananas between meals helps to keep blood sugar levels up and avoid morning sickness.
Mosquito bites: Before reaching for the insect bite cream, try rubbing the affected area with the inside of a banana skin. Many people find it amazingly successful at reducing swelling and irritation.
Nerves: Bananas are high in B vitamins that help calm the nervous system.
Overweight and at work? Studies at the Institute of Psychology in Austria found pressure at wor k leads to gorging on comfort food like chocolate and crisps. Looking at 5,000 hospital patients, researchers found the most obese were more likely to be in high-pressure jobs. The report concluded that, to avoid panic-induced food cravings, we need to control our blood sugar levels by snacking on high carbohydrate foods every two hours to keep levels steady.
Ulcers: The banana is used as the dietary food against intestinal disorders because of its soft texture and smoothness. It is the only raw fruit that can be eaten without distress in over-chronicler cases. It also neutralizes over -acidity and reduces irritation by coating the lining of the stomach.
Temperature control: Many other cultures see bananas as a "cooling" fruit that can lower both the physical and emotional temperature of expectant mothers. In Thailand , for example, pregnant women eat bananas to ensure their baby is born with a cool temperature.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Bananas can help SAD sufferers because they contain the natural mood enhancer tryptophan.
Smoking &Tobacco Use: Bananas can also help people trying to give up smoking. The B6, B12 they contain, as well as the potassium and magnesium found in them, help the body recover from the effects of nicotine withdrawal.
Stress: Potassium is a vital mineral, which helps normalize the heartbeat, sends oxygen to the brain and regulates your body's water balance. When we are stressed, our metabolic rate rises, thereby reducing our potassium levels. These can be rebalanced with the help of a high-potassium banana snack.
Strokes: According to research in The New England Journal of Medicine, eating bananas as part of a regular diet can cut the risk of death by strokes by as much as 40%!
Warts: Those keen on natural alternatives swear that if you want to kill off a wart, take a piece of banana skin and place it on the wart, with the yellow side out.. Carefully hold the skin in place with a plaster or surgical tape!
So, a banana really is a natural remedy for many ills. When you compare it to an apple, it has four times the protein, twice the carbohydrate, three times the phosphorus, five times the vitamin A and iron, and twice the other vitamins and minerals. It is also rich in potassium and is one of the best value foods around So maybe its time to change that well-known phrase so that we say, "A banana a day


1. Hydration: Always carry a pet bottle of water, preferably lukewarm. Have 2-3 sips/gulps of water after every 10 minutes. Do this throughout the day.
2. Steam Inhalation: Inhale plain steam twice daily, preferably once at the beginning of the day and once before going to bed.
3. Take a small break/gap after every__2___ minutes of speaking continuously.
4. Practice breathing deeply before starting any conversation.
5. Can practice Pranayam for effective breathing.

1. Do not clear your throat. Instead swallow or drink some water to clear your throat.
2. Do not talk in whispers.
3. Avoid excessive talking throughout the day.
4. Do not talk for more than ___20___ minutes continuously.
5. Do not talk with raised voice/loudly at all.
6. Do not talk in very noisy surroundings/environment.
7. Do not shout/call out loudly to a person at a distance. Instead go close to him/her or attract attention in other ways.
8. Do not speak across floors.
9. Do not speak in a running car/motorcycle, especially if on the backseat.
10. Try not to laugh and sneeze too loudly.
11. Do not indulge in arguments/debates wherein you may need to raise your voice.
12. Do not expose yourself to chemical fumes, gas, pungent fumes in the kitchen, etc.
13. Do not smoke/consume alcohol. (If you have a habit).
14. Avoid talking over phones/mobiles for too long.
15. During meetings at office try to have a two-way communication to reduce communication strain on yourself.
16. Do not hide your problem from people at home or office. Rather discuss with others and seek their co-operation.
17. Do not keep your stomach empty for a long time. Will result in acidity, increasing your voice problems.

** Follow the above tips for effective voice quality and reduce the probability of Voice

Please be a true friend and send this article to all your friends you care about.

For those who like to drink cold water, this article is applicable to you. It is
nice to have a cup of cold drink after a meal. However, the cold water will
solidify the oily stuff that you have just consumed. It will slow down the
digestion. Once this "sludge" reacts with the acid, it will break down and be
absorbed by the intestine faster than the solid food. It will line the intestine.
Very soon, this will turn into fats and lead to cancer. It is best to drink hot
soup or warm water after a meal.
A serious note about heart attacks - You should know that not every heart
attack symptom is going to be the left arm hurting. Be aware of intense pain
in the jaw line.
You may never have the first chest pain during the course of a heart attack.
Nausea and intense sweating are also common symptoms. 60% of people
who have a heart attack while they are asleep do not wake up. Pain in the
jaw can wake you from a sound sleep. Let's be careful and be aware. The
more we know the better chance we could survive.
A cardiologist says if everyone who reads this message sends it to 10 people,
you can be sure that we'll save at least one life. Read this & Send the link to
a friend. It could save a life. So, please be a true friend and send this article
to all your friends you care about.

US-Canadian State Codes


Province Code-Canadian Province / Territory

PE-Prince Edward Island
BC-British Columbia
NT-Northwest Territories / Nunavut
NS-Nova Scotia
NB-New Brunswick


DC-District of Columbia
NH-New Hampshire
NJ-New Jersey
NM-New Mexico
NY-New York
NC-North Carolina
ND-North Dakota
RI-Rhode Island
SC-South Carolina
SD-South Dakota

WV-West Virginia

Acronymsin .Net

Acronyms in .NET

ADO - ActiveX Data Object - Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) is a collection of Component Object Model objects for accessing different types of data sources.
AJAX - Asynchronouse Javascript and XML - Ajax is a web development technology used for creating interactive web pages with fast data rendering by enabling partial postbacks on a web page (That means a section of the web page is rendered again, instead of the complete web page. This is achieved using Javascript, XML, JSON (Javascript Notation Language) and the XMLHttpRequest object in javascript.
ASP - Active Server Pages - Microsoft's Server side script engine for creating dynamic web page.
C# - C Sharp - Microsoft Visual C# is an object oriented programming language based on the .NET Framework. It includes features of powerful languages like C++, Java, Delphi and Visual Basic.
CAO - Client Activated Object - Objects created on the server upon the client's request. This is used in Remoting.
CCW - COM Callable Wrapper - This component is used when a .NET component needs to be used in COM.
CIL - Common Intermediate Language - Its actually a low level human readable language implementation of CLI. All .NET-aware languages compile the source oode to an intermediate language called Common Intermediate Language using the language specific compiler.
CLI - Common Language Infrastructure - This is a subset of CLR and base class libraries that Microsoft has submitted to ECMA so that a third-party vendor can build a .NET runtime on another platform.
CLR - Common Language Runtime - It is the main runtime machine of the Microsoft .NET Framework. It includes the implementation of CLI. The CLR runs code in the form of bytes, called as bytecode and this is termed MSIL in .NET.
CLS - Common Language Specification - A type that is CLS compliant, may be used across any .NET language. CLS is a set of language rules that defines language standards for a .NET language and types declared in it. While declaring a new type, if we make use of the [CLSCompliant] attribute, the type is forced to conform to the rules of CLS.
COFF - Common Object File Format - It is a specification format for executables.
COM - Component Object Model - reusable software components. The tribe of COM components includes COM+, Distributed COM (DCOM) and ActiveX® Controls.
CSC.exe - C Sharp Compiler utility
CTS - Common Type System - It is at the core of .NET Framework's cross-language integration, type safety, and high-performance code execution. It defines a common set of types that can be used with many different language syntaxes. Each language (C#, VB.NET, Managed C++, and so on) is free to define any syntax it wishes, but if that language is built on the CLR, it will use at least some of the types defined by the CTS.
DBMS - Database Management System - a software application used for management of databases.
DISCO - Discovery of Web Services. A Web Service has one or more. DISCO files that contain information on how to access its WSDL.
DLL - Dynamic Link Library - a shared reusable library, that exposes an interface of usable methods within it.
DOM - Document Object Model - is a language independent technology that permits scripts to dynamically updated contents of a document (a web page is also a document).
ECMA - European Computer Manufacturer's Association - Is an internation organisation for computer standards.
GC - Garbage Collector - an automatic memory management system through which objects that are not referenced are cleared up from the memory.
GDI - Graphical Device Interface - is a component in Windows based systems, that performs the activity of representing graphical objects and outputting them to output devices.
GAC - Global Assembly Cache - Is a central repository of reusable libraries in the .NET environment.
GUI - Graphic User Interface - a type of computer interface through which user's may interact with the Computer using different types of input & output devices with a graphical interface.
GUID - Globally Unique Identifier - is a unique reference number used in applications to refer an object.
HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - is a communication protocol used to transfer information in the internet. HTTP is a request-response protocol between servers and clients.
IDE - Integrated Development Environment - is a development environment with source code editor with a compiler(or interpretor), debugging tools, designer, solution explorer, property window, object explorer etc.
IDL - Interface Definition Language - is a language for defining software components interface.
ILDASM - Intermediate Language Disassembler - The contents of an assembly may be viewed using the ILDASM utility, that comes with the .NET SDK or the Visual Studio.NET. The ildasm.exe tool may also be used in the command line compiler.
IIS - Internet Information Server - Is a server that provides services to websites and even hosts websites.
IL - Intermediate Language - is the compiled form of the .NET language source code. When .NET source code is compiled by the language specific compiler (say we compile C# code using csc.exe), it is compiled to a .NET binary, which is platform independent, and is called Intermediate Language code. The .NET binary also comprises of metadata.
JIT - Just in Time (Jitter) - is a technology for boosting the runtime performance of a system. It converts during runtime, code from one format into another, just like IL into native machine code. Note that JIT compilation is processor specific. Say a processor is X86 based, then the JIT compilation will be for this type of processor.
MBR - MarshallByReference - The caller recieves a proxy to the remote object.
MBV - MarshallByValue - The caller recieves a copy of the object in its own application domain.
MDI - Multiple Document Interface - A window that resides under a single parent window.
MSIL - Microsoft Intermediate Language - now called CIL.
Orcas - Codename for Visual Studio 2008
PE - Portable Executable - an exe format file that is portable.
RAD - Rapid Application Development
RCW - Runtime Callable Wrapper - This component is used when a .NET needs to use a COM component.
SAX - Simple API for XML - It is a serial access parser API for XML. The parser is event driven and the event gets triggered when an XML feature is encountered.
SDK - Software Development Kit
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - a text based protocol for sending mails.
SN.exe - Strong Name Utility - a tool to make strong named assemblies.
SQL - Structured Query Language - a language for management of data in a relational structure.
SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol - a protocol used for exchange of xml based messages across networks.
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol - data exchange protocol across networks using streamed sockets.
UI - User Interface
URI - Uniform Resource Identifier
URL - Uniform Resource Locator
UDDI - Universal Description, Discovery and Integration - it is a platform independent business registration across the internet.
WAP - Wireless Access Protocol - a protocol that enables access to the internet from mobile phones and PDAs.
WC - Windows Cardspace - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, that enables users to secure and store digital identities of a person, and a provision to a unified interface for choosing the identity for a particular transaction, like logging in to a website.
WCF - Windows Communication Foundation - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, that enables communication between applications across machines.
WF - Windows Workflow Foundation - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, used for defining, execution and management of reusable workflows.
WKO - Well Known Object - These are MBR types whose lifetime is controlled by the server's application domain.
WPF - Windows Presentation Foundation - Part of .NET 3.0 framework, is the graphical subsystem of the .NET 3.0 framework.
WSDL - Web Services Description Language - is an XML based language for describing web services.
WML - Wireless Markup Language - is a content format for those devices that use Wireless Application Protocol.
VB.NET - Visual Basic .NET - .NET based language. Its the .NET implementation of VB6, the most widely used language in the world.
VBC.exe - VB.NET Compiler
VES - Virtual Execution System - It provides the environment for execution of managed code. It provides direct support for a set of built in data types, defines a hypothetical machine with an associated machine model and state, a set of control flow constructs, and an exception handling model. To a large extent, the purpose of the VES is to provide the support required to execute the Common Intermediate Language instruction set.
VS - Visual Studio
VSS - Visual Source Safe - An IDE by Microsoft, to maintain source code versions and security.
VSTS - Visual Studio Team Suite - Visual Studio Team System - it is an extended version of Visual Studio .NET. It has a set of collaboration and development tools for software development process.
XML - Extensible Markup Language - is a general purpose well formed markup language.

Planets and stars size in scale

Spooky photo proves life on Mars?

India Earns It's First Ever Individual Gold Medal at Olympic

Sushil Kumar Wins Bronze Medal in Olympics 2008