Body Build

Ganguly-Rare Photos

Mind Blowing Facts

1. Turtles have no teeth.

2. Prehistoric turtles may have weighed as much as 5,000 pounds.

3. Only one out of a thousand baby sea turtles survives after hatching.

4. Sea turtles absorb a lot of salt from the sea water in which they live. They excrete excess salt from their eyes, so it often looks as though they're crying.

5. Helium is a colourless, odourless, tasteless inert gas at room temperature and makes up about 0.0005% of the air we breathe.

6. Helium Balloon Gas makes balloons float. Helium is lighter than air and just as the heaviest things will tend to fall to the bottom, the lightest things will rise to the top.

7. Helium Balloon Gas makes balloons float. Helium is lighter than air and just as the heaviest things will tend to fall to the bottom, the lightest things will rise to the top.

8. Camels can spit.

9. An ostrich can run 43 miles per hour (70 kilometers per hour).

10. Pigs are the fourth most intelligent animal in the world.

11. Dinosaurs didn't eat grass? There was no grass in the days of the dinosaurs.

12. Dolphins can swim 37 miles per hour (60 kilometers per hour).

13. A crocodile's tongue is attached to the roof of its mouth? It cannot move. It cannot chew but its Digestive juices are so strong that it can digest a steel nail, Glass pieces, etc

14. Sharks are immune to disease i.e they do not suffer from any Disease.

15. Animals are either right- or left-handed? Polar bears are always left-handed, and so is Kermit the Frog.

16. Paris, France has more dogs than people.

17. New Zealand is home to 70 million sheep and only 40 million people.

18. Male polar bears weigh 1400 pounds and females only weight 550 pounds, on average.

19. Bison are excellent swimmers? Their head, hump and tail never go below the surface of the water.

20. There are 6 to 14 frogs species in the world that have no tongues. One of these is the African dwarf frog.

21. A frog named Santjie, who was in a frog derby in South Africa jumped 33 feet 5.5 inches.

22. The longest life span of a frog was 40 years

23. The eyes of a frog flatten down when it swallows its prey

24. The name `India' is derived from the River Indus

25. The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name `Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.

26. Chess was invented in India.

27. The' place value system' and the 'decimal system' were developed in 100 BC in India.

28. The game of snakes & ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat.' The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices.

29. India has the most post offices in the world

30. 'Navigation' is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH

31. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'.

Jokes - Marital Woes!!!

Getting married is very much like going to a restaurant with friends. You order what you want, then when you see what the other person has, you wish you had ordered that.


Man: Is there any way for long life?
Dr: Get married.

Man: Will it help?
Dr: No, but the thought of long life will never come.


Why do couples hold hands during their wedding?

It's a formality just like two boxers shaking hands before the fight begins!


Wife: Darling today is our anniversary, what should we do?

Husband: Let us stand in silence for 2 minutes.


It's funny when people discuss Love Marriage vs Arranged.

It's like asking someone, if suicide is better or being murdered


It is difficult to understand GOD . He makes such beautiful things as women and then he turns them into Wives


If u r married please ignore this MSG,

For everyone else: Happy Independence Day


Before marriage, a man will lie awake all night thinking about something you say.

After marriage, he'll fall asleep before you finish.


There's a way of transferring funds that is even faster than electronic banking. It's called marriage


Galfriends r like chocolates,
Taste gud anytime.

Lovers r like PIZZAS, Hot n spicy, eaten frequently.
Wife r like Dal RICE, eaten when there`s no choice


Man receives telegram: Wife deadshould be buried or cremated?

Man: Don't take any chances. Burn the body and bury the ash.


Prospective husband: Do you have a book called 'Man, The Master of Women'?

Salesgirl: The fiction department is on the other side, sir.


Q: Why dogs don't marry?

A: Because they are already leading a dog's life!


There was this guy who told his woman that he loved her so much that he would go through hell for her. They got married and now he is going thru hell.


Fact of life: One woman brings you into this world crying & the other ensures you continue to do so for the rest of your life!


Q: Why doesn't law permit a man to marry a second woman?

A: Because as per law you cannot be punished twice for the same offence!


How to make firefox faster

Here some Instructions are given to make firefox faster.

click the link

Only use Mac OS X 10.4-compatible disk utilities with Mac OS X 10.4 volumes

To avoid issues with a Mac OS X 10.4 volume, do not use disk utility software
that was released before Tiger (late April, 2005) with it. If you do, the
software might report false errors or attempt "repairs" that could lead to data
Third-party disk utility software includes Alsoft DiskWarrior, Micromat Tech
Tool, and Symantec Norton Disk Doctor. Consult third-party utility
manufacturers to find out which software versions are compatible with Mac OS
X 10.4.

What about Mac OS X 10.3's Disk Utility?
You can use Disk Utility in Mac OS X 10.3.9—and only Mac OS X 10.3.9—to
check or repair a Mac OS X 10.4 volume (Disk Utility version 10.4.4 v145.7).
Don't use an earlier version of Disk Utility, such as when started from a Mac
OS X 10.3.0 disc.

Of course, you can also use Disk Utility included with Mac OS X Tiger.

Why is this important?

Mac OS X 10.4 adds support for Extended Attributes. A disk repair application
that's not Mac OS X 10.4-aware may incorrectly report Extended Attributes as
directory damage. You may get an error message such as "Cannot be rebuilt.
The original directory is too severely damaged" that is untrue.
To prevent these issues, make sure that you only use Mac OS X 10.4 Tigercompatible
disk utilities to verify or repair a volume that has Tiger installed on

Only use Mac OS X 10.4-compatible disk utilities with Mac OS X 10.4 volumes Page 1 of 1


Beware of bare linefeeds in Exchange Server email

A bare linefeed is a single linefeed character (LF or ASCII 10) that isn't preceded by an ASCII carriage return (CR or ASCII 13) character. Since a carriage return is always supposed to be followed by a linefeed according to RFC 822bis, any message that has a bare linefeed in it is supposed to be rejected by the email server it was sent to.

When this happens, the receiving email server typically prepares a rejection message that mentions the problem. This is often accompanied with the directive See

The URL describes the bare linefeed issue and has some suggested fixes for a number of popular Unix-based mailers (and even a few Windows mailers). Unfortunately, there is no fix listed in the event this problem crops up when you're using Exchange Server.

When you're running Exchange Server, the culprit is almost always not Exchange Server itself but a third-party add-on or appliance -- a virus scanner that runs as part of Exchange Server or a hardware device that scans emails in transit to and from your Exchange server.

Under certain conditions (such as a very long, unwrapped text line), the virus scanner or appliance may mistakenly inject a bare linefeed and cause outgoing email to fail. Some more archaic email clients will also try to end a message with a linefeed, a period and a linefeed instead of a CR-LF-period-CR-LF string, which will also fail.

The easiest way to find out if the device or scanning engine in question is the culprit is simply to take it out of service for a time and see if the problem repeats itself. If not, you'll need to see if an upgrade for that device/program exists -- or perhaps consider a replacement that doesn't cause such issues.

Related information from

  • Tip: Using an appliance to reduce the performance impact of spam
  • Tip: How and why to disable certain ESMTP verbs
  • Fast Guide: Exchange Server security essentials
  • 5 tips in 5 minutes: Securing Exchange Server 2003
  • Step-by-Step Guide: How to use ISA Server as an SMTP filter
  • Microsoft Exchange Server Alternative

    Low-cost, alternative to Microsoft Exchange hosting.

    HyperOffice continues to be the preferred choice for a Microsoft Exchange server alternative. Our easy to use, affordable hosting solution provides you with the features you need to conduct business with a convenient, secure, and flexible environment that requires no IT maintenance. And best of all, you can keep using Outlook and share Outlook calendars, contacts, email, tasks, documents, and more without needing Microsoft Exchange. Compare HyperOffice to Microsoft Exchange with a Total Cost of Ownership analysis.


    * The need to share & synchronize Outlook and share calendars, documents, contacts without installing, maintaining and supporting Microsoft Exchange.

    * The need for a hosted collaboration and communication infrastructure—accessible anytime, anywhere and from any computer.

    * The need for a low cost hosted Exchange alternative without a large upfront financial commitment and ongoing maintenance costs.

    * The need to predict and control costs as operations scale up or down without any anxiety over Microsoft Exchange upgrade cycles, outdated servers, or expensive IT consultants.


    * Use HyperOffice as a low-cost, no maintenance Exchange server hosting alternative. Continue to use Outlook with the ability to Share Outlook calendars, contacts, and tasks without expensive servers.

    * For approximately $7.00 per month your company will have access to the same technology that, until now, was only available for large enterprises — cutting-edge collaboration tools, online backup and file storage, spam and virus-free email—no servers, software or IT professionals required.

    * Access email anywhere with Web based email with 24/7 virus protection and spam control; share & synchronize Outlook company-wide calendars, tasks, and documents. Share company-wide contacts via online address books.

    What is Net-Banking? Net Banking Details

    What is Net-Banking?
    Net Banking is the Internet Banking Service provided by Canara Bank for the customers of its Core Banking (CBS) Branches. Net-Banking is offered to both Retail as well as Corporate customers. While Net-Banking Retail services the Retail Customers, Net-Banking Corporate is tailored to suit the needs of Corporate Customers. Net-Banking is the most comfortable channel for you to experience round the clock banking from any part of the world.

    Am I eligible for Net Banking?
    If you are maintaining your accounts with any of our CBS Branches, you are eligible to enroll for Net Banking Facility. You will have to apply for Net Banking by submitting the application at the branch.

    Where do I get the Application Form for Net-Banking?
    You can obtain an application form for Net-Banking from any of the CBS branches. Alternately you may also download the application from our Net Banking Home Page

    Will I be charged for the facility?
    As of now, Net Banking facility is being extended FREE OF COST.

    What are the requirements for me to access the facility?
    You require the following to access the facility:
    • A Personal Computer (at least Pentium with Windows 95)
    • An Internet Connection
    • A Browser (Microsoft IE 6.0 or Netscape Navigator 8.0 or later)
    • User id provided by the Bank
    • Login and Transaction Passwords
    As a security measure, we advise you not to access Net-Banking from browsing centers even though our Bank provides the basic security features.

    Which is the site to access Net-Banking?
    You can access Net-Banking through the Bank’s URL

    Can I view a demo of the Facility?
    Yes. A demo is provided on the Home Page ( which gives you complete insight of the services offered by the Bank.

    Can I access all my accounts across different branches under one login?
    Yes. You can access all your accounts maintained in CBS Branches under one login provided all the accounts are linked to the same customer number. All your accounts will be seen on a single page.

    Can I access my accounts when I am out of station?
    Yes. You can access your accounts from anywhere and at any time. All you need is a PC with Internet Connection and requirements as specified in Point No. 4 above.

    Is the facility available for NRI's?
    Yes. The facility is available to all NRI's and is very helpful to access accounts sitting in the luxury of office or home from any part of the world.
    What are the facilities available to me on Net-Banking?
    • Summary of Operative Accounts/Term Deposit/Loan Accounts.
    • View/Query transactions in all your Operative/Loan Accounts.
    • Account Details of all your Operative/Term Deposits/Loan Accounts.
    • Funds transfer facility between your own accounts of the same branch/maintained across CBS branches and Third Party Transfers
    • Opening and Viewing of Term Deposits, Term Deposit Payout Instructions and TDS Inquiry
    • Initiation/Modification/Deletion and Viewing of Standing Instructions
    • Repayment of Loan
    • Bulletins from Bank’s Relationship Manager
    • Cheque Book Request
    • Cheque / Cheque Book Status Inquiry
    • Request Account Statement.
    • Forex Rate / Interest Rate Inquiry
    • Term Deposit / Loan Calculator
    • Change Password
    • Update Profile
    • Contact Relationship Manager
    • MAIL (View inbox / Draft / Compose mail to Relationship Manager / Sent Items)
    • Stop Payment Instructions
    • DD/Pay Order Requests


    How to Login?
    You will have to visit our Net Banking Web site to login. You will require the User id, Login Password and Transaction Password sent by us to login to Net Banking Web Site.

    What is my User id and Passwords?
    User id is the Personal Identification Alphanumeric Code that you will receive on enrolling for Net Banking. This Code will be used by the Bank to uniquely identify you as an Net Banking Customer. You will receive a set of passwords namely Login Password and Transaction Password as well as User id in separate mails for security reasons. On your first login you will be forced to change your passwords to passwords of your choice.

    How to obtain User id and Passwords?
    You will be issued User id and Password only against your specific request after you sign the application to avail the service. You will have to submit the duly filled in application to your branch where you are maintaining your accounts. The Branch will process the application and recommend for Net-Banking and will send the application to the Central Processing Center. You will then receive the User id and Passwords in separate mails.

    Can I change my Password? How do I change my Passwords?

    Yes. You can change your passwords any time after you login.

    You will be prompted to change your passwords on two occasions:

    Immediately after you login with the newly generated passwords

    On expiry of 90 days from the date of change of your current passwords

    You also have the option to change your passwords any time you like through the Change Password option provided as one of the menu option. On invoking the option the system will take you to the “Change Password” screen. You will have to choose the type of password you wish to change (Login Password or Transaction Password) from the drop down button. You will be prompted to key in your old password, new password and confirmation of the new password. Click on “Change” to change your password. To assist you in changing your passwords, rules for password change is given at the bottom of the change password screen.

    I have forgotten my password. What should I do?
    You will have to submit a new application or a letter duly requesting for regeneration at your branch by informing your User id. We will regenerate the passwords and send the same to you through Courier/Regd Post to the mailing address in Net Banking records

    Whom should I contact in case of help?
    You may contact our Help Desk on the toll free No. 1800-425-0018 anywhere within the country.


    What security Canara Bank provides in Net-Banking?

    Encryption: Your Data and Messages travel in a 128Bit SSL mode encryption technique provided by IDRBT (Institution for Development and Research in Banking Technology), which is a subsidiary of The Reserve Bank of India

    Change Password Option: You are provided with an option to change your passwords any number of times through the application. You can change the passwords whenever you feel that your passwords have been compromised.

    Data Confidentiality: Your Data and other Information is kept highly confidential. This will not be disclosed to anybody unless legally warranted.

    Password Confidentiality: Your Passwords are known only to you. The Passwords are randomly generated by the system and will not be known to any person in the Bank.

    Number of Attempts to Login: Since your security is of foremost importance to us, we only allow three attempts for you to login. This will minimize brute force attacks. After the three attempts your User id will be automatically gets locked. You will have to request your branch to unlock the same, by way of a letter.

    Validity of Passwords: Your passwords are valid for 90 days. System will prompt you to change your passwords from 10 days before expiry of 90 days from the date of previous change.

    Expiry of Passwords: Your passwords will expire after 90 days of generation if you have not logged in. You will have to request for fresh set of passwords thereafter.

    What can I do to protect myself?
    Update your Operating System and Browsers with the latest patches
    Use a Personal Firewall on your PC
    Use the latest updated Anti Virus Software
    Never click on hyperlinks embedded in suspicious email messages.
    Do not open suspicious email attachments even if it has emanated from a person you know.
    Do not disclose your personal information to any Email purported to have emanated from the Bank. We do not seek any personal information over Email.
    Do not leave your login screen unattended
    Close all the windows displaying your account information before you proceed with something else.

    Do not give scope for unauthorized access. By maintaining secrecy of your User id and passwords you can prevent unauthorized access.

    The best way of maintaining secrecy is to commit your User id and passwords to memory and change your passwords frequently Beware of Phishing attacks. The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.

    The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the user’s information.

    Mac OS X: Troubleshooting a dial-up (PPP) Internet connection

    Mac OS X includes all the applications you need to access and use the Internet
    right away. But what if your modem doesn't connect to the Internet or
    frequently disconnects? Follow the easy steps below and you'll be back on the
    Internet in no time.

    Check phone outlet and cables, call waiting, and line quality

    Make sure your phone outlet or "jack" works by connecting a telephone to it. If
    it works, check the connection between the outlet and your computer.
    Disconnect and reconnect the cable to be sure the it is firmly inserted. If you
    are using an external modem, check the connection to your computer and its
    power cord. Be sure cables are not cut, chewed, or otherwise damaged. If you
    experience frequent or random disconnection, consider these possible causes:
    Disconnect if idle for __ minutes enabled?

    You may have set your computer to automatically disconnect from the
    Internet after a period of inactivity. Check your PPP Options:
    1. Open System Preferences.
    2. Click Network.
    3. From the Show menu, choose Internal Modem.
    4. Click the PPP tab, then click PPP Options.
    Be sure this is not your issue before spending time troubleshooting your
    phone line. Similarly, your Internet service provider may automatically
    disconnect you when you are idle. Ask your Internet service provider
    what its idle disconnection policy is.

    Call Waiting

    If you have call waiting, your Internet connection may be interrupted by
    an incoming call. Check your phone book or with your phone company
    for help turning off call waiting on a per-call basis. In North America,
    you usually just add "*70" to the dial-up number. Enter this code as a
    prefix followed by two commas when typing your ISP's dial-up phone
    number in Network preferences. For example, if your dial-up phone
    number is 555-1111, enter "*70,,5551111" as your dial-up phone
    number. The commas create a pause between tones, allowing the code
    prefix to be acknowledged before dialing.

    Phone off the hook
    See if others in your home or office are trying to use the same line.

    Environmental interference

    It's possible that your phone line receives interference from a strong
    electrical field, or an electric or radio appliance. Try a phone jack in
    another area or remove potential sources of interference, if possible.

    Phone line quality

    Analog phone lines ("POTS," or plain old telephone service) are
    generally maintained for voice quality. Your modem may reveal quality
    issues with your phone line that are not considered when evaluating for
    voice quality, and that are not perceptible to the human ear. If frequent
    disconnects cannot be isolated to another cause, you may need to
    investigate phone line quality by contacting your telephone company. If
    you cannot resolve an issue with phone line quality, consider other
    alternatives that may be available in your area, including cable, DSL,
    ISDN, satellite service, and so forth.

    For an expanded discussion of this subject matter, se
    e "Troubleshooting Phone
    Line Issues That Affect Modem Conn

    Don't use the Ethernet port!

    Your computer's Ethernet and modem ports look alike, but the Ethernet port is
    wider. On many Macintosh computers, it's possible to plug a standard RJ-11
    phone cable into the Ethernet port, though this has been prevented on some
    models. Be sure to connect your phone cable to the modem port. Notice the
    similarities and differences in these two ports, which have identifying icons:

    Check connection settings

    Check four things in Network preferences: that the modem is your primary
    network interface, your dial-up account information, your TCP/IP settings, and
    your modem settings. Follow these steps:

    1. From the Apple menu, choose System Preferences.
    2. From the View menu, choose Network.
    3. Choose Active Network Ports from the Show pop-up menu
    ("Advanced" from the " Configure" pop-up menu prior to Mac OS X
    4. Be sure that the checkbox for "Internal Modem" (or another modem) is
    5. Drag Internal Modem to the top of the Port Configurations list to make it
    the preferred, or primary, network interface.
    6. Choose Internal Modem from the Show pop-up menu.
    7. Click the PPP tab.
    8. Check the Account Name and Telephone Number fields to be sure you
    have correctly entered the information your ISP gave you.
    9. If you choose to save your password, retype it to be sure it is correct.
    10. Click the TCP/IP tab. Follow your ISP's instructions for setting up this
    pane. For more information, see "Mac OS X: How to connect to the
    Internet with PPP (dial-up access)".
    11. Click the Modem tab. In the Modem pop-up menu, be sure you have
    selected a modem script that matches your modem.
    12. If your telephone exchange is limited to either Tone or Pulse, be sure
    that the radio button selected next to "Dialing:" matches your
    13. If you subscribe to voicemail service that lets you know when you have
    a message with a "beeping" dial tone, deselect the checkbox for "Wait
    for dial tone before dialing."
    14. If you have made any changes, click Apply Now.

    Get the latest software

    Under certain circumstances, your modem may need a software update in
    order to work. If you have an Apple built -in modem, be sure you have the
    latest update for the version of Mac OS X that you are using, and that you
    have installed any applicable modem updates for your computer model.
    Search Apple Downloads using the word "modem" and the model name of your
    computer. If you have a third-party modem, check the manufacturer's website
    for possible modem script, driver, or firmware updates.

    Differences Between Exchange 2003 and 2000

    The following Microsoft® Exchange 2000 Server application development-related technologies and features were changed in Exchange Server 2003. Some technologies were enhanced, while others were removed, or are not supported in specific scenarios.
    full details click the link

    Migrating Mailboxes from Microsoft® Exchange Server version 5.5 to Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server

    Migration Wizard provided with both Microsoft® Exchange 2000 Server Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Service Pack 2 (SP2) has all the mailbox migration capabilities of previous versions, with the added capability of migrating from one Microsoft Exchange organization to another. Previous versions of Migration Wizard allowed you to migrate to Exchange 2000 from other mail systems, such as Lotus cc:Mail, Lotus Notes, and GroupWise. These options are still available in the Exchange 2000 SP1 and SP2 versions of Migration Wizard, but the SP1 version also allows you to migrate mailbox data from an Exchange 5.5 organization. The SP2 version extends the capabilities of the SP1 version by allowing you to migrate from one Exchange 2000 organization to another Exchange 2000 organization.
    This paper describes the Exchange 2000 SP1 and Exchange 2000 SP2 versions of Migration Wizard, provides methods and tips for their use, and discusses common migration strategies. This paper also follows the fictitious Lucerne Publishing Company as it migrates from Exchange 5.5 to Exchange 2000 using Migration Wizard with Microsoft Active Directory Connector (ADC).
    Click the link to download

    Mac OS X 10.4: Included printer drivers and PostScript PPD files

    Mac OS X 10.4 installs printer drivers and PostScript Printer Description files(PPDs) for many printers. Some printer files included with Mac OS X 10.4might not be included with previous Mac OS X versions, and vice-versa. Thisarticle contains a list of all printer drivers and PPD files included with Mac OS X10.4. Please note that some of these drivers were created by open-sourceprojects (refer to the "Install Package" column in the list to find the driversource).

    Tip: To ensure that you have the latest drivers for your printer, always checkyour printer manufacturer's website.Mac OS X 10.4 includes printer drivers from the following manufacturers (toview the complete list of drivers from all printer manufacturers, please scrolldown the window, or use your browser's Find feature to look for a specificname, such as "Olympus" or "Toshiba):

    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Electronics For Imaging (EFI)
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Hewlett-Packard (HP)
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    Company website
    List of included drivers
    (see also, Some Xerox printers may require newer PPDs)
    Note: This list is subject to change without notice.

    Open-source printer drivers (CUPS, Gimp-Print, Easy
    Software Products)
    Some of the included drivers were developed through the Gimp-Print open
    source project. Others are sample CUPS drivers from Easy Software Products
    You can use these drivers when no Mac OS X driver is available from your
    printer's manufacturer or when the manufacturer's driver does not support a
    specific feature of your printer. Please note that open source drivers may not
    support all features of your printer.

    Installing printer drivers
    All included printer drivers are installed by default when you install Mac OS X
    10.4. If you custom install Tiger, you can select which printer driver packages
    you would like installed. The Apple LaserWriter PPDs and sample drivers
    included with CUPS are installed as part of the Essential System Software
    package and cannot be customized or installed separately from Mac OS X.
    If you would like to install any of the optional printer drivers after installing
    Mac OS X, insert the Install disc into your computer and use Optional Installs.

    All drivers in this list are designed to operate in English. Many are localized for
    additional languages as well. If you select a driver that has not been localized
    in your primary language, it will appear in the next available language in the
    order you specified in the International preferences, or in English.

    Printer not listed?
    If your PostScript level 2 or 3 printer doesn't appear on this list, get a PPD
    from your printer's manufacturer or use the Generic PPD.
    If your non-PostScript (inkjet, raster) printer does not appear on this list, get a
    driver from the printer's manufacturer or try using a compatible Gimp-Print
    driver. You can view a list of all printers that may work with a Gimp-Print
    driver here.

    Some printer features might not be available
    Bundled printer drivers and PPDs may not offer every feature of a printer, such
    as built-in faxing, scanning, or an optional sheet feeder. If your printer has a
    feature that is not available, contact the printer manufacturer for more
    information regarding the use of that feature. For example, the LaserWriter
    16/600 PS Fax driver allows many printing features, but not the built-in fax
    Printer drivers and PPD files included with Mac OS X
    Tips and notes

    1. The Driver Version column contains the PPD file version for PostScript
    printers or printers using CUPS drivers.
    2. Drivers that are denoted on the list as a Modern Driver are PPD files or
    drivers designed for CUPS (printing architecture available in Mac OS X
    10.2 and later).
    3. Drivers that are not denoted as Modern Drivers cannot be selected
    when adding an IP printer or Windows shared printer.
    4. The drivers that list "ESP" as the manufacturer are sample drivers
    included with CUPS.
    5. Some HP printer drivers support a series of printer models. To
    determine if a specific printer model is part of a series, see this website.

    Mac OS X 10.4 Help

    Setting up a network connection

    If you want to connect to a network or to the Internet, you need to set up a
    network connection.
    Use the Network pane of System Preferences to enter your connection
    information, such as connection method, TCP/IP settings, account name, and
    Settings for different network connections can be saved in "locations." Your
    default location, named "Automatic," includes settings for each of your
    computer's network "ports," or methods of connecting. Ports include Built-in
    Ethernet, AirPort, and an Internal or External Modem.
    Search Mac Help for additional topics that walk you through setting up your
    connection depending on how you connect (DSL, dial-up PPP, or cable modem,
    for example).
    If you're not sure what settings to use, check the information you got from
    your Internet service provider (ISP)when you signed up for your account, or
    talk to your network administrator.
    If you change network settings frequently, you can create additional locations,
    then switch quickly using the Location command in the Apple menu.
    1. Open System Preferences and click Network.
    2. Choose a location from the Location pop-up menu, or create a
    new location.
    3. Choose a configuration from the Show pop-up menu, then enter
    settings appropriate to that port.

    You can also use Network Setup Assistant to walk you through
    the setup process. Click Assist Me in the Network pane of
    System Preferences, and follow the onscreen instructions.

    Search Mac Help for additional topics that walk you through setting up yourconnection depending on how you connect (DSL, dial-up PPP, or cable modem,for example).If you're not sure what settings to use, check the information you got fromyour Internet service provider (ISP)when you signed up for your account, ortalk to your network administrator.If you change network settings frequently, you can create additional locations,then switch quickly using the Location command in the Apple menu.

    Make XP Go Faster

    Services You Can Disable

    There are quite a few services you can disable from starting automatically.
    This would be to speed up your boot time and free resources.
    They are only suggestions so I suggestion you read the description of each one when you run Services
    and that you turn them off one at a time.

    Some possibilities are:
    Application Management
    Fast UserSwitching
    Human Interface Devices
    Indexing Service
    Net Logon
    Remote Desktop Help Session Manager
    Remote Registry
    Routing & Remote Access
    SSDP Discovery Service
    Universal Plug and Play Device Host
    Web Client


    Cleaning the Prefetch Directory

    WindowsXP has a new feature called Prefetch. This keeps a shortcut to recently used programs.
    However it can fill up with old and obsolete programs.

    To clean this periodically go to:

    Star / Run / Prefetch
    Press Ctrl-A to highlight all the shorcuts
    Delete them


    Not Displaying Logon, Logoff, Startup and Shutdown Status Messages

    To turn these off:

    Start Regedit
    Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionpoliciessystem
    If it is not already there, create a DWORD value named DisableStatusMessages
    Give it a value of 1

    Clearing the Page File on Shutdown

    Click on the Start button
    Go to the Control Panel
    Administrative Tools
    Local Security Policy
    Local Policies
    Click on Security Options
    Right hand menu - right click on "Shutdown: Clear Virtual Memory Pagefile"
    Select "Enable"

    For regedit users.....
    If you want to clear the page file on each shutdown:

    Start Regedit
    Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerMemory ManagementClearPageFileAtShutdown
    Set the value to 1


    No GUI Boot

    If you don't need to see the XP boot logo,

    Click on the BOOT.INI tab
    Check the box for /NOGUIBOOT

    Speeding the Startup of Some CD Burner Programs

    If you use program other than the native WindowsXP CD Burner software,
    you might be able to increase the speed that it loads.

    Go to Control Panel / Administrative Tools / Services
    Double-click on IMAPI CD-Burning COM Service
    For the Startup Type, select Disabled
    Click on the OK button and then close the Services window
    If you dont You should notice


    Getting Rid of Unread Email Messages

    To remove the Unread Email message by user's login names:

    Start Regedit
    For a single user: Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USERSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionUnreadMail
    For all users: Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionUnreadMail
    Create a DWORD key called MessageExpiryDays
    Give it a value of 0


    Decreasing Boot Time

    Microsoft has made available a program to analyze and decrease the time it takes to boot to WindowsXP
    The program is called BootVis

    Uncompress the file.
    For a starting point, run Trace / Next Boot + Driver Delays
    This will reboot your computer and provide a benchmark
    After the reboot, BootVis will take a minute or two to show graphs of your system startup.
    Note how much time it takes for your system to load (click on the red vertical line)
    Then run Trace / Optimize System
    Re-Run the Next Boot + Drive Delays
    Note how much the time has decreased
    Mine went from approximately 33 to 25 seconds.

    Increasing Graphics Performance

    By default, WindowsXP turns on a lot of shadows, fades, slides etc to menu items.
    Most simply slow down their display.

    To turn these off selectively:

    Right click on the My Computer icon
    Select Properties
    Click on the Advanced tab
    Under Performance, click on the Settings button
    To turn them all of, select Adjust for best performance
    My preference is to leave them all off except for Show shadows under mouse pointer and Show window contents while dragging


    Increasing System Performance

    If you have 512 megs or more of memory, you can increase system performance
    by having the core system kept in memory.

    Start Regedit
    Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerMemory ManagementDisablePagingExecutive
    Set the value to be 1
    Reboot the computer


    Increasing File System Caching

    To increase the amount of memory Windows will locked for I/O operations:

    Start Regedit
    Go to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSession ManagerMemory Management
    Edit the key IoPageLockLimit


    Resolving Inability to Add or Remove Programs

    If a particular user cannot add or remove programs, there might be a simple registry edit neeed.

    Go to HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesUninstall
    Change the DWORD NoAddRemovePrograms to 0 disable it

    4096 - 32megs of memory or less
    8192 - 32+ megs of memory
    16384 - 64+ megs of memory
    32768 - 128+ megs of memory
    65536 - 256+ megs of memory

    Tech support Jokes...

    These "silly tech support calls" have been around in e-mails and online since the dawn of tech support.


    Customer: Hi, this is Celine. I can't get my diskette out.
    Tech support: Have you tried pushing the Button?

    Customer: Yes, sure, it's really stuck.
    Tech support: That doesn't sound good; I'll make a note.

    Customer: No, wait a minute... I hadn't inserted it yet... it's still on my desk... sorry....


    Tech support: What kind of computer do you have?
    Female customer: A white one...

    Tech support: Click on the 'my computer' icon on to the left of the screen.
    Customer: Your left or my left?


    Tech support: Good day. How may I help you?
    Male customer: Hello... I can't print.

    Tech support: Would you click on "start" for me and...
    Customer: Listen pal; don't start getting technical on me! I'm not Bill Gates.


    Customer: Hi, good afternoon, this is Martha, I can't print. Every time I try, it says 'Can't find printer'. I've even lifted the printer and placed it in front of the monitor, but the computer still says he can't find it...


    Customer: I have problems printing in red...
    Tech support: Do you have a color printer?

    Customer: Aaaah....................thank you.


    Tech support: What's on your monitor now, ma'am?
    Customer: A teddy bear my boyfriend bought for me at the 7-11.


    Customer: My keyboard is not working anymore.
    Tech support: Are you sure it's plugged into the computer?

    Customer: No. I can't get behind the computer.
    Tech support: Pick up your keyboard and walk 10 paces back

    Customer: OK

    Tech support: Did the keyboard come with you?
    Customer: Yes

    Tech support: That means the keyboard is not plugged in. Is there another keyboard?
    Customer: Yes, there's another one here. Ah...that one does work...


    Tech support: Your password is the small letter "a" as in apple, a capital letter V as in Victor, the number 7.
    Customer: Is that 7 in capital letters?


    Customer: I can't get on the Internet.
    Tech support: Are you sure you used the right password?

    Customer: Yes, I'm sure. I saw my colleague do it.
    Tech support: Can you tell me what the password was?

    Customer: Five stars.


    Tech support: What anti-virus program do you use?
    Customer: Netscape.

    Tech support: That's not an anti-virus program.
    Customer: Oh, sorry...Internet Explorer.


    Customer: I have a huge problem. A friend has placed a screen saver on my computer, but every time I move the mouse, it disappears.


    Tech support: How may I help you?
    Customer: I'm writing my first e-mail.

    Tech support: OK, and what seems to be the problem?
    Customer: Well, I have the letter 'a' in the address, but how do I get the circle around it?


    A woman customer called the Canon help desk with a problem with her printer.
    Tech support: Are you running it under windows?

    Customer: "No, my desk is next to the door, but that is a good point. The man sitting in the cubicle next to me is under a window, and his printer is working fine."


    And last but not least...

    Tech support: "Okay Bob, let's press the control and escape keys at the same time. That brings up a task list in the middle of the screen. Now type the letter "P" to bring up the Program Manager"
    Customer: I don't have a P.

    Tech support: On your keyboard, Bob.
    Customer: What do you mean?

    Tech support: "P".....on your keyboard, Bob.
    Customer: I'M NOT GOING TO DO THAT! (he meant pee)

    Sardar Jokes

    How do you make a Sardar laugh on Saturday?
    Tell him a joke on Wednesday.

    Q: "Have you ever read Shakespeare?"
    Sardar: "No, who wrote it?"

    Why do Sardars work seven days a week?
    So you don't have to re-train them on Monday.

    Why did 18 sardarjis go to a movie?
    Because below 18 was not allowed.

    What do you do when a Sardar throws a hand grenade at you?
    Pull the pin and throw it back.

    Why can't Sardar dial 911?
    They can not find the eleven on the phone

    "Oh, look at the dead bird."
    Sardar looked skyward and said "Where, Where?

    What do smart Sardar and UFOs have in common?
    You always hear about them but you never see them.

    Sardarji is buying a TV.
    "Do you have color TVs?"
    "Give me a green one, please."

    How to prepare for meetings

    If there is one activity that unites professionals from different occupations all over the world, it is meetings. Executives, managers, or software developers -- they all spend a large part of their working hours closeted in conference rooms discussing issues, significant and insignificant.

    But the truth about meetings is they are largely a waste of time if not organised well or not planned in advance. Here are some tips to help you get the best out of these congregations.

    Time and venue
    The initiator of the meeting must take up the task of sending out meeting requests to all parties who are required to attend, specifying the date, time and venue. If the meeting is a teleconference or a videoconference with participants from multiple locations, it is essential that the meeting request contain the date and time of the various time zones.
    This is a common mistake, as a colleague in Tokyo found out when she forgot to specify the time zone in her e-mail, which meant that disparate groups of people were waiting for her to teleconference them at different times of the day!
    The initiator must ensure a discussion room or conference room large enough to hold the requisite number of attendees is booked for the scheduled time.

    It is also up to the initiator to arrange for any materials such as a projector, computer, slides, handouts, or even just a whiteboard and markers. A manager at a telecommunications firm narrates how a meeting he was invited to was delayed by 45 minutes because the computer and projectors were not set up, leading to senior managers walking out and requesting a reschedule.

    If you are invited to a meeting for which handouts are distributed, make sure you read those notes before attending. It will keep you in tune with the discussions once you are part of the meeting, and will demonstrate your preparedness with ideas and thoughts on the topic at hand.

    Once the time and venue of the meeting is fixed, it is vital that the initiator of the meeting decide the points on the agenda. Each of these points must be covered in detail and decisions taken on them before the meeting wraps up.

    Preferably, these points can even be enumerated in brief on the whiteboard in the room, allowing everyone to be aware of the agenda and helping the initiator keep an eye on it at all times.

    Minutes of the meeting
    In the duration of the meeting, several points and ideas will be thrown up which, if not documented, will evaporate into thin air well before the end. It will be impossible for anyone to retain all the discussed points in memory. Therefore, it is best for the initiator or the meeting-in-charge to appoint one person to jot down notes during the meeting. It is better still if two or three people take notes just in case one misses out something important.
    At the culmination of the meeting, it is the duty of the person assigned to note down the minutes to create a document and circulate it amongst all attendees. Such a document typically contains the date and time of the meeting, number and names of attendees, the agenda and, against each of the points on the agenda, the action items.

    The focus on agenda
    Often, despite maintaining an agenda and adhering strictly to time and schedule on a few points, the discussion deteriorates into heated debates. At this point, it is the prerogative of the meeting-in-charge or the initiator to ensure an objective discussion. Also, if a member starts rambling for hours without any end in sight, he must be brought back on track. It should be made clear that although brainstorming is acceptable, digression into irrelevant territory is entirely unwelcome.

    When all points on the agenda have been discussed to the satisfaction of all parties, the person writing the minutes or even the initiator can wrap up by briefly reading out the salient points of all that has been discussed, including action to be taken once people return to their work. The minutes of the meeting is a good starting point to follow up with team members in the following days if necessary action has been taken, as discussed.

    Ways to React Positively (Even to Negative People)

    • Take a time out. Breathe deeply and slowly count to 10. Imagine that you're surrounded by a protective bubble. If you're still in danger of losing it, excuse yourself from the room. You can always continue the conversation later, after you've calmed down.

    • Put yourself inside the other person's head. Maybe you won't be able to figure out where he's coming from, but just trying to understand the intent behind his actions will give you some distance from your own emotions. Remind yourself that you can't always change how people perceive you, only how you react.

    • Picture yourself as being on a stage, a character in your very own play. What are your character's motivations and beliefs? Do they make sense for this particular scene? Or could they use a little rewriting?

    • Stay in the present. Be aware of the emotions you're feeling. Make sure they relate to the moment and are not tied up in some experience from your past.

    • Communicate your feelings without blaming the other person for them. Don't be afraid to set clear boundaries regarding what behavior you will and won't accept.

    Backing up your music files in iTunes 4

    Learn how to back up songs that are in your iTunes library. If you have iTunes
    5 or iTunes 6, click here.
    Be sure to make regular backups of your music files (in your iTunes Music
    folder) by copying them to an external hard disk or other media. Otherwise, if
    your hard disk becomes damaged or you lose any of the music you've
    purchased, you'll have to buy any purchased music again to rebuild your

    Backing up your music to a CD or DVD
    You can burn a data CD or DVD with any of the songs and spoken word
    content in your iTunes library. You might want to do this to make a backup
    copy (or archive) of all your audio files, or to transfer them to another
    To burn a DVD, your computer should have an internal SuperDrive and Mac
    OS 10.2.4 or later. Some third-party DVD burners may also work. You can
    store about 650 MB of files on a CD, and about 4.7 GB on a DVD.

    To create a playlist of your entire library
    1. Open iTunes.
    2. Click Library in the Source list.
    3. Click the Browse button or choose Show Browser from the Edit menu.
    4. Make sure "All" is selected for Genre, Artist, and Album.

    5. Click any single song, then choose Select All from the Edit menu.

    6. From the File menu, choose New Playlist From Selection.
    7. Type a name for the new playlist.

    Note: If you don't mind re-importing your other music from your CD
    collection, you can just back up yout iTunes Store and Audible content by
    creating a smart Playlist that contains all songs and audiobooks with Kind set
    to Protected AAC audio file or Audible file as shown here:

    To burn a data CD or DVD
    1. Open iTunes.
    2. From the iTunes menu, choose Preferences (Windows: From the Edit
    menu, choose Preferences).
    3. Click the Burning button.
    4. Choose Data CD or DVD as the Disc Format.
    5. Click OK.
    6. Create a playlist that includes all the items in your library (see steps
    above), or all the items you want to back up to the CD or DVD.
    7. Select the playlist you want to burn to the CD or DVD, then click the
    Burn Disc button.
    8. Insert a blank CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, or DVD-RW disc, and click Burn
    Disc again.
    Any audio files in the playlist (MP3, AAC, AIFF, WAV, Audible) are copied to the
    CD or DVD.
    Tip: You can only burn a CD or DVD from the songs in a playlist. If the playlist
    contains more songs than will fit on a single disc, iTunes will notify you and
    will give you the option to use multiple discs. You can see the size of the
    selected playlist at the bottom of the iTunes window.
    Data CDs or DVDs will work on your computer, but will not work in most
    CD/DVD players.
    You can make regular, incremental backups of your music (that means only
    backing up what has changed).

    Restoring music files from backup:
    To add music files back into your iTunes library from your backup discs:
    1. Insert the disc into your computer. The disc shows up in iTunes.
    2. Click the disc in the Source list.
    3. Click the Browse button in the upper right to make browsing the disc
    4. Locate the songs, albums, artists or entire genres you are missing.
    5. Drag the missing files to Library in the Source list.

    A note about copyright iTunes software may be used to reproduce materials. It is licensed to you only for reproduction of non-copyrighted
    materials, materials in which you own the copyright, or materials you are
    authorized or legally permitted to reproduce. If you are uncertain about your
    right to copy any material, you should contact your legal advisor. See the
    iTunes Store Terms of Service for additional information.

    Mac OS X 10.4 Help

    Connecting to the Internet using AirPort

    If you have an AirPort card in your computer, you can connect to the Internet
    wirelessly by joining an AirPort or other wireless network that's connected to
    the Internet.
    If the network you are joining is protected by a password you will need to
    enter it before you can join the network.
    If the AirPort Base Station is set up to use a dial-up or PPP connection to the
    Internet, it will connect automatically when you open an application that
    requires a connection.

    To connect to the Internet if the base station is not configured
    to connect automatically:

    1. Open Internet Connect and click the AirPort icon in the toolbar.
    2. Choose the network from the Network pop-up menu. If you are
    prompted for a password enter it. If the network you want to
    join is not in the list, choose Other and enter the network name
    and password.
    3. Click Connect.

    If the base station on your AirPort network has a continuous connection to the
    Internet, you are already connected when you join the network.
    For help setting up an AirPort base station to connect to the Internet, use the
    AirPort Setup Assistant, located in Applications/Utilities. Click the link below for
    more information on using AirPort.

    Web Hosting Services

    A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to provide their own website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. Web hosts can also provide data center space and connectivity to the Internet for servers they do not own to be located in their data center, called colocation.

    Funny Interview Questions
    Going for an interview, read this first ...just a few lessons

    Story I
    E: Do u have a boyfriend?
    C: I have.
    E: Is he working Locally?
    C: No. He is working Overseas.
    E: Sorry, my company cannot employ u!
    C: Why?
    E: U will not be able to settle down here permanently. And my Company don't want to pay extra expenses on the Overseas calls just because of u.

    Story II
    E: Any girl friends?
    C: No.
    E: So far chased any before?
    C: Have, but not successful.
    E: Ever think of getting a job first then start looking for a girlfriend?
    C: Career is first priority. Currently didn't want to consider This personal issue.
    E: Sorry, my company cannot employ u.
    C: Why?
    E: You are lacking of P.R skills and confidence!!

    Story III
    E: Any girlfriends?
    C: Yes.
    E: Is she pretty?
    C: Not quite.
    E: Sorry, my company cannot employ you.
    C: Why? Will this affect your company's reputation?
    E: No, it does not affect the company's reputation but because My company is dealing with arts, our company requested an artist.

    Story IV
    E: Any girlfriends?
    C: Yes.
    E: Is she pretty?
    C: Yes.
    E: Is she your first lover?
    C: Yes.
    E: Sorry, we can't employ you because you lack of fighting spirit.

    Story V
    E: Any girlfriends?
    C: Yes.
    E: Is she your first lover?
    C: No. Have a few already.
    E: Sorry, my company cannot employ you because you are a "grasshoper"! (Job hoper lah!)

    Story VI
    E: Any boyfriends?
    C: Yes.
    E: Is he rich?
    C: No.
    E: Then sorry, my company cannot employ you because our Company is dealing with money and you will seduce.

    Story VII
    E: Any boyfriends?
    C: Yes.
    E: Is he rich ?
    C: Yes, very rich.He owns a company.
    E: Sorry, we cannot employ you because your boyfriend don't Even want to employ you, neither do we!
    C: But,...... there is no position in his company.
    E: Then,..... what is your qualification?
    C: Secretary!
    E: Sorry, we still cannot employ you because your prettiness Will affect our managers' working spirits.
    C: But,...... I am not pretty at all.
    E: It is even worse because my managers will not be interested In you!!/color]

    So next time when u go for an inteview be prepared for this question....

    How to Buy a Home Theater System

    Movies can provide an immersive experience, as sight and sound blend together to take you to a place far, far away. For years you could get that complete escape only in a cinema, with its huge screen and monstrous speakers. Now, with a home theater, you can enjoy a full-fledged cinematic experience in your living room. This guide looks at three key components of a home theater system: the display, the DVD player, and the speakers.
    The Big Picture

    A wide-screen TV, a DVD player, and surround-sound speakers can turn your living room into a film-watching haven.
    The Specs Explained
    You can choose from a wide variety of components to create a home theater. Bigger is not always better, however; find out how to evaluate the specs here.
    Home Theater Shopping Tips
    Now that you know which components and specifications are available, you can sort through the options to set up your own customized home theater.

    The Big Picture
    A home theater can do a remarkable job of mimicking the multiplex experience. DVD players and newer televisions can produce detailed high-resolution pictures, offering realistic portrayals of everything from the largest explosion to the smallest teardrop. And thanks to a high-quality surround-sound speaker system, you'll almost feel the rotor blades whirring by as you watch a helicopter pass overhead. With the right setup, your living room will become a movie-watching cocoon.
    To get the crisp picture, you'll need a DVD player or one of the new high-definition HD DVD or Blu-ray Disc players. DVD video outputs up to 540 horizontal lines of resolution, compared with about 200 lines on the VHS tapes your VCR plays. And you can see the difference, as the higher resolution produces a noticeably smoother and clearer picture. Most major consumer electronics companies, including
    Panasonic, Pioneer, Sony and Toshiba, make DVD players. These same companies also make the newer high-definition players that are capable of more than four times the resolution of standard DVD models when playing high-definition discs.
    Prices for basic players range from $50 to $150, but you can pay a lot more for DVD players with lots of features. The overall picture quality, however, will usually be just as good on a current low-cost model as on an ultra-deluxe one. All DVD players can read music CDs; most can play MP3 music on recordable CDs, and video on one or more of the various recordable DVD formats (such as DVD-R and DVD+R). Some high-end models can also play one or both of the high-resolution, multichannel audio formats, DVD-Audio (DVD-A) and Super Audio CD (SACD). At the top of the heap are players for the new high-definition videodisc formats, Blu-ray Disc and HD DVD, which currently sell for $300 or more; you'll need a high-definition television to take full advantage of them, though.

    Picking the Right TV
    While you can watch DVD movies on any television, wide-screen TVs work especially well because most DVD movies use the wide-screen format. Wide-screen televisions have a 16:9 (width:height) aspect ratio, which is closer to the shape of theater screens than the 4:3 aspect ratio of normal TVs is. In addition, the 16:9 aspect ratio is standard for high-definition television, which produces much sharper and clearer pictures than does conventional (NTSC) television. As a result, almost all TVs available today with a diagonal screen measurement greater than 27 inches are wide-screen models, and most (though not all) of them are capable of displaying high-definition images. For your home theater, you probably don't want to consider anything other than a wide-screen TV.
    For the first 50 years of television's history, essentially all sets used cathode-ray tubes to display the picture. Today, other display technologies dominate at screen sizes larger than 26 inches, and CRT-based TVs will likely disappear from the market within the next decade. TVs appropriate for home theaters now divide into roughly three categories: flat-panel TVs, rear-projection TVs, and front projectors.
    Flat-panel TVs are just a few inches thick and can be either wall- or stand-mounted. LCD (liquid crystal display) panels are available in sizes ranging from portable units of a few inches diagonal to wide-screen models measuring as large as 65 inches diagonal. Plasma panels start at about 42 inches, and models measuring more than 100 inches diagonal are available. Except for small LCD TVs (usually 20 inches or less), almost all flat-panel TVs are wide-screen models, and most have HDTV inputs and resolutions. Where plasma and LCD screen sizes overlap, the LCDs tend to be more expensive. Generally speaking, LCDs are more suitable than plasmas for brightly lit rooms, but plasmas typically can produce deeper blacks and truer colors and thus a more pleasing overall picture. (Both technologies are evolving rapidly, however.) Most flat-panel TVs suitable for home theater use sell for between $700 and $10,000.
    Rear-projection TVs cast a video image onto the inside of a translucent screen by means of internal mirrors and lenses. All rear-projection TVs (or RPTVs) available today are wide-screen HDTV designs. Some budget models still use CRTs to create the projected images, but most now rely on more compact DLP (Digital Light Projection), LCoS (liquid crystal on silicon), or LCD light engines in which a high-intensity lamp shines on or through one or more display chips or panels. Although bulkier than flat-panel TVs, rear-projection sets using these new technologies are usually no more than 16 to 18 inches deep and weigh only about 100 pounds; most are designed to be placed on a shelf or stand, something hard to achieve with traditional CRT designs. Screen sizes for rear-projection TVs range from about 42 inches to more than 70 inches diagonal, with prices typically between $1000 and $5000.
    Originally developed primarily for business presentations on computers, compact front projectors (most using DLP or LCD technology) have become increasingly popular for home theater. Low-noise, high-definition models start at about $1000, and can produce extremely large, clear pictures. You will need a good-quality reflective cinema screen to project onto, however, and you will need to darken the room to get decent picture quality.

    The Sound of Movies
    While the visual element is at the forefront of a movie's appeal, sound is what really immerses you in the experience. To achieve theater-quality audio, you'll need more than the speakers built into your TV or the two bookshelf speakers that came with your mini stereo system. A complete surround-sound system from a company such as
    Bose, JBL, or Paradigm includes center, left, and right speakers, as well as two satellite speakers (intended for placement at the sides or somewhat behind the seating area) and a subwoofer for rumbling bass.
    These six speakers work together with audio formats such as Dolby Digital and DTS to create the sensation of bullets whizzing by your head and thunderstorms rolling through your house and rattling your teeth. You don't need all the elements to enjoy a good listening experience, but at a minimum you should have center, left, and right speakers.
    Most home theater systems also include an A/V receiver--a box that acts as the hub for all audio input from the various components of the system, decodes surround-sound signals, and amplifies and balances sound before sending it to the speakers.
    As more people decide to set up a home theater, vendors are making the task easier. Many companies now offer "home theater in a box" setups that include a DVD player integrated with a receiver, plus a full set of six speakers.

    The Specs Explained
    You'll find a plethora of displays, DVD players, and speakers at any home electronics store. Distinguishing one from another can be difficult, but the specs can help if you understand them. With that in mind, we've grouped the specifications for these products into three categories: important, somewhat important, and minor.

    Important: Display Type
    This is the physical mechanism that the TV uses to display the image. Flat panels (both LCD and plasma displays) and rear-projection TVs are capable of producing large, wide-screen, high-definition pictures. Front projectors can create sharp images in still larger screen sizes (up to 10 feet or so). Make your decision based on your budget, on the image size you desire, on where the screen will be located in the room, and on the lighting conditions. LCD panels, for example, can work well even in rooms bathed in bright sunlight, whereas front projectors virtually require that the room be darkened or dimly lit.

    Important: Video Inputs and Outputs
    These determine how a TV receives signals from a DVD player (or from another external device, such as a cable box or a satellite receiver). S-Video inputs provide a cleaner, slightly higher-resolution picture than standard composite inputs do, while still using a single wire. Component inputs deliver the luminance and color components of a video signal on three separate wires and allow connection of progressive-scan and high-definition sources. HDMI carries digital video signals, primarily from high-definition video sources but also from upconverting DVD players. For best picture quality, use an HDMI or component connection whenever possible.

    Important: DVD Player Output Resolution
    Conventional DVD players deliver what is known as 480i output, which means 480 video scan lines in interlaced format--the same type of signal that regular TV broadcasts use. Most current players can also provide 480p, or progressive-scan, output, which typically looks better on HDTVs and other sets capable of progressive-scan display (this includes all models except CRT-based sets). Upconversion by DVD players produces HD-resolution (720p, 1080i, and sometimes 1080p) output from a regular DVD. The higher resolutions are produced by interpolation, however, so the picture doesn't look as good as an image from a true high-definition source, plus, almost all current HDTVs perform such upconversion internally anyway. The best pictures are produced by new models that can play true high-definition HD DVD or Blu-ray Discs in addition to standard DVDs.

    Important: Number of Speakers
    How many speakers do you want? For a complete surround-sound experience from DVDs and from HDTV broadcasts, you'll need five to seven speakers, and for best performance you'll probably want a subwoofer as well (to produce strong, deep bass). In low-end systems or in a cramped area, you may prefer to buy a smaller number of higher-quality speakers; you can always add more later, including a subwoofer. Even if you start out with just a pair of stereo speakers, you'll enjoy significantly better sound than the speakers built into a TV would provide.

    Somewhat Important: TV Display Resolution
    For 30-inch or larger screens, you'll get better picture quality from high-definition broadcasts and DVDs if you buy an HDTV model. The display resolutions of HDTV sets vary; typical examples include 720p (1280 by 720 pixels), 1080i or 1080p (1920 by 1080), 1366 by 768, and 1024 by 768. The exact display resolution of the set you buy may not matter much unless its screen is relatively large and you sit unusually close to it. The difference between 720p and 1080p resolution, for example, isn't visible on a 50-inch screen until you get within about 10 feet of it.

    Somewhat Important: Disc Formats Supported
    DVD players can do more than handle DVDs. In addition to running DVD movies, bargain players will play music CDs as well as CD-Rs and CD-RWs with music recorded on them. They will usually play MP3-encoded music on CD-R and CD-RW discs, and video recorded on at least one of the available recordable DVD formats (DVD-R/RW, DVD+R/RW, DVD-RAM). Some higher-end players will also play high-resolution DVD-Audio or SACD music discs. Today's best players support one or both of the new high-definition videodisc formats, Blu-ray and HD DVD.

    Minor: Disc Capacity
    This is simply the number of discs the DVD player can hold at once. A multidisc changer can be convenient, especially for playing CDs, but it will not affect the setup's picture or sound quality.

    Home Theater Shopping Tips
    Ready to put together a home theater of your own? Here are PC World's recommendations for displays, DVD players, and speakers.
    Go with HD: Choose a wide-screen high-definition TV in the size most appropriate for your room. Only if you're on a very tight budget or have a very small room should you consider anything else.
    Choose an appropriate screen size: Bigger is usually better, up to a point. Your own eyes are your best guide on this, but a good (though rough) rule of thumb is that the diagonal screen size should not be larger than about half your seating distance. With a 42-inch TV, for example, you probably should not watch from closer than about 7 feet.
    Look for HDMI or component-video inputs on the TV: These inputs will allow you to connect high-definition and progressive-scan sources and will produce the best possible picture quality. The set should also have composite-video and S-Video inputs for sources such as VCRs. And a set of A/V inputs on the set's front or side will make it easier to hook up a camcorder for viewing home videos.
    Opt for progressive scan: It's hard to find a current DVD player that doesn't include progressive scan, which produces a sharper, flicker-free picture. However, the TV you use will need to have component inputs that support the progressive-scan signal as well. A high-definition Blu-ray Disc or HD DVD player will provide an even better picture; it also will require a component input--or, better, an HDMI input. Some regular DVD players will upconvert their outputs to pseudo-high-definition resolution, but since this does not actually increase the amount of detail in the picture and duplicates a function built into most TVs that can accept a high-definition input, it is seldom a genuinely useful feature.
    Consider a multiple-disc setup: A five-disc carousel DVD player allows you keep a movie or two and several CDs in the player at once, so you don't have to get up to change discs.
    Start with three speakers: If you can't afford the full surround-sound setup, start with the center, left, and right speakers. You can always add the subwoofer later if you miss the extra bass, and you can buy the satellite surround speakers if you want a full surround-sound effect.
    Use 100 watts as a guideline: A receiver than can produce 100 watts per channel will be more than adequate for most home theater systems.
    Look for Dolby Digital support: Make sure the receiver you buy includes Dolby Digital decoding. Dolby Pro Logic II is highly desirable as well, to provide surround sound from videotapes and from ordinary stereo music sources such as CDs.
    Look for a good return policy: Some speakers may sound great in the store but not in your living room. Make sure that you can return them if the way they sound in your home disappoints you.

    Secrets of Eyebrows

    Arched Brow
    The brow of beauty. You're born to the good things in life. Indicates harmony in

    Upswept Brow
    A positive, optimistic brow. The sign of an activist brow.

    Downswept Brow
    Seductive. But could signal weakness to others.

    Short Brow
    Gives the appearance of youth..and can be an asset. Shows independence and ambition.

    Level Brow
    The brow of a career woman who also enjoys sports and the outdoor.

    Angular Brow
    Indicates a dramatic personality. .. creative, brilliant in financial matters.

    Rounded Brow
    The brow of a businesswoman or perhaps an entertainer.

    Harry Potter Spells
    Accio: - The summoning charm, used to make an object fly toward the caster
    Alohomora: - The unlocking charm, used to make a locked object unlocked
    Aparecium: - The revealing charm, used to make invisible writing (perhaps other objects too) visible
    Apparate: - Complex spell which causes the caster to Disapparate in one place and Apparate in another, used for traveling moderate distances, harder to perform over longer ranges
    Avada Kedavra: - The killing curse, one of the three unforgivable curses, it is unblockable and totally lethal. The only person to have ever survived Avada Kedavra is Harry Potter.
    Avis: - Conjures a flock of small birds
    Bat-Bogey Hex: - Causes giant flying bogies to attack the target
    Bubble Head Charm: - Surrounds the caster's head with a bubble of fresh, self replenishing air
    Cheering Charm: - Causes the target to be cheered up, made happy
    Confundus Charm: - Used to confuse or Confund a target
    Conjunctivitis Curse: - A spell which negatively affects the target's vision
    Crucio: - The Cruciatus Curse, one of the three unforgivable curses, causes intense pain in the target. Used by Dark wizards to torture victims, it requires the caster to truly desire to cause pain
    Deletrius: - Erases the effects of the Prior Incantato spell, can perhaps erase other illusory effects as well
    Densaugeo: - A spell which causes the target's teeth to grow
    Diffindo: - The severing charm, cuts an object, generally a strap or cord or other thin tense material
    Disillusionment: - A spell used to make something not invisible, but very hard to see as it mimics the view behind it
    Dissendium: - Used to open the secret passageway out of Hogwarts which leads to the cellar of Honeydukes in Hogsmeade, might be a general 'Open Sesame' for secret doors
    Engorgio: - The enlargement charm, used to make an object increase in size
    Enervate: - Used to wake up someone who has been stunned, can likely be used to rouse any unconscious person
    Expecto Patronum: - The Patronus charm, used to conjure a silvery animal form which is the embodiment of the caster's positive feelings. A Patronus is usually used to repel a Dementor
    Expelliarmus: - The disarming charm, used to make an opponent's weapon fly from their hand.
    Ferula: - Conjures a wooden rod
    Fidelius: - The fidelity charm, used to entrust a secret to one person, thus making the information unknowable to anyone but the designated Secret Keeper
    Finite Incantatem: - Terminates a previously cast charm
    Furnunculus: - Causes the target to break out in boils
    Impedimenta: - Stops or slows the target
    Impervius: - Makes something fully resistant to water, perhaps other liquids as well, causing it to be always dry
    Imperio: - The Imperius curse, one of the three unforgivable curses, it forces the target to do whatever the caster requires
    Incendio: - Sets an object on fire
    Jelly Legs Jinx: - Causes the target's legs to wobble
    Legilimens: - Allows the caster access to the target's thoughts and feelings
    Locomotor Mortis: - The leglocker curse, causes the target's legs to freeze
    Lumos: - Causes light to shine from the caster's wand
    Mobiliarbus: - Causes a tree to move
    Mobilicorpus: - Causes a human body to move, works on unconscious targets
    Morsmordre: - Sends the Dark Mark, Voldemort's symbol, into the air
    Nox: - Ends a Lumos spell
    Obliviate: - Erases the target's memory
    Orchideous: - Creates a bunch of flowers from a wand
    Petrificus Totalus: - The full body bind, freezes the target's body
    Prior Incantato: - Creates an ephemeral image of the last spell cast by a wand
    Quietus: - Ends the effects of the Sonorus spell
    Reducio: - Reverses the effects of an Engorgio spell
    Relashio: - Creates a jet of firey sparks from the caster's wand, underwater it causes a jet of hot water
    Reparo: - Repairs broken objects, most effective when the object is named as in Hermione's Oculus Reparo, which fixes Harry's glasses
    Rictusempra: - The tickling charm, causes a person to laugh uncontrollably
    Riddikulus: - Causes a Boggart to take on a humourous form
    Scourgify: - The scouring charm, used to clean an object or area
    Serpensortia: - Conjures a snake from the caster's wand
    Silencio: - The silencing charm, forces the target to make no sound
    Sonorus: - Causes the target's voice to become audible at long distances and over other noise
    Stupefy: - The stunning spell, renders the target unconscious
    Tarantallegra: - Forces the target's legs to dance vigorously
    Waddiwasi: - Causes a small soft mass, such as a piece of chewing gum, to fly to wherever the caster directs it
    Wingardium Leviosa: - The levitating charm, causes an object to levitate, or hover in the air



    Defining Abnormal Behavior
    When we ask how a society defines psychological abnormality, we are asking, first, where that society draws the line between acceptable and unacceptable behavior and second, which unacceptable behaviors the society views as evidence of “disorder” rather than simply as undesirable characteristics.

    Norm Violation
    Every human group lives by a set of norms – rules that tell us what it is “right” and “wrong” to do and when, where, and with whom. Such rules circumscribe every aspect of our existence. They are taken for granted by people within a culture, but they can differ widely between cultures.

    Statistical Rarity
    From a statistical point of view, abnormality is any substantial deviation from a statistically calculated average. Those who fall within the “golden mean”- those who do what most, other people do – are normal, while those whose behavior differs from that of the majority are abnormal. This criterion is used in some evaluations of psychological abnormality. The diagnosis of mental retardation, for instance, is based in large part on statistical accounting. Those whose rested intelligence falls below an average range for the population, and who also have problems coping with life, are labeled “mentally retarded.

    Personal Discomfort
    Another criterion for defining abnormally is personal discomfort. If people are content with their lives, then they are of no concern to the mental health establishment.

    Maladaptive Behavior
    A fourth criterion for defining a behavior as abnormal is whether it is maladaptive. Here the question is whether a person, given then behavior pattern, is able no meet the demands of his or her life – hold down a job, deal with friends and family, pay the bills on time, and the like. If not, the pattern is abnormal.

    Explaining Abnormal Behavior
    Since antiquity, people have developed theories as to the causes of abnormal behavior. These theories have a common base in that they are all naturalistic; that is, they seek to account for abnormal behavior in terms of natural events-disturbances in the body or disturbances in human relationships.

    The Medical Model
    According to what is loosely called the medical model or disease model , abnormal behavior is comparable to disease. Each kind of abnormal behavior; like each disease, has specific causes and a specific set of symptoms. In its strictest sense, the medical model also implies that the abnormal behavior is biogenic – that is, it results from a malfunction within the body. However even those who do not think that all abnormal behavior is biologically based are still thinking in medical terms when they speak of overt “symptoms” and underlying causes.

    Biogenic theories of abnormal behavior have been with us since ancient times. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, biogenic theories coexisted with supernatural theory, the belief that abnormal behavior was caused by God on, more often, the devil. But, in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, religious explanations were gradually eclipsed by biological explanations were gradually eclipsed by biological explanations. This newly dominant medical approach was soon rewarded by a series of important breakthroughs. Several previously unexplained behavior patterns were found to result from brain pathologies-infection, poisoning, and the like. Such discoveries brought immense prestige to the biogenic theory of abnormal behavior. Medicine it was assumed, would ultimately conquer madness. On this assumption, madness was increasingly turned over to the medical profession.

    There remained many patterns of abnormal behavior – indeed, the majority – for which no medical cause had been discovered, yet, because researchers were confident that such causes would eventually be found and because abnormal behavior was by then the province of medicine, these patterns were treated as if they were biologically based. In other words they were treated according to a medical “model”

    Psychological Approaches
    Complementing the medical model are the psychological theories of abnormal behavior. Such theories attribute disturbed behavior patterns not to biological malfunction but to psychological processes resulting from the person’s interaction with the environment. Thus, disturbed behavior may be explained by negligent upbringing, by traumatic experiences, by inaccurate social perceptions, or by too much stress.

    There are dozens of competing psychological theories abnormal behavior. Still, it is possible to identity a few fairly unified perspectives – broad schools of thought based on the same fundamental assumptions. In this book, we will refer repeatedly to the following psychological perspectives.

    1. The psychodynamic perspective, which assumes that abnormal behavior issues from unconscious psychological conflicts originating in childhood.

    2. The behavioral perspective, which holds that a primary cause of abnormal behavior is inappropriate learning, whereby maladaptive behaviors are rewarded and adaptive behaviors are not rewarded.

    3. The cognitive perspective, which maintains that abnormal behavior is an outgrowth of maladaptive ways of perceiving and thinking about oneself and the environment.

    4. The interpersonal perspective which views abnormal behavior as the product of disordered relationship.

    5. The sociocultural perspective which views abnormal behavior as the product of broad social and cultural forces. It also examines the biases that can influence diagnosis.

    In addition to considering these psychological view points we will pay close attention to the neuroscience approach.

    6. The neuroscience perspective, which analyzes abnormal behavior in terms of its neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neurohormonal components.