Hardware Questions and Answers?

What is a NETWORK?
Interconnection of two or more computers
Its types:
· Local-area networks (LAN)
Wide-area networks (WAN)
· Metropolitan-area networks (MAN)
o Campus-area networks (CAN)
Home-area networks (HAN)
HubA common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports..
SwitchIn networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments.
A device that forwards data packets along the networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP’s network.

A router acts as a junction between two or more networks to buffer and transfer data packets among them. A router is different from a switch and a hub: a router is working on layer 3 of OSI model, a switch on layer 2 and a hub on layer 1. This makes them work for different situations: a switch connects devices to form a Local area network (LAN) (which might, in turn, be connected to another network via a router).

Short form for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device that converts analog signals to digital signals and digital signals to analog signals.

A program or piece of code that is loaded onto the computer without the user’s knowledge and runs against their wishes. Viruses can also replicate themselves.

A worm is a special type of virus that can replicate itself and use memory, but cannot attach itself to other programs.

Trojan horse
Unlike viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive. One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer.

Adware or advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertising material to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used.

Spyware is a general term used to describe software that performs certain behaviors such as advertising, collecting personal information, or changing the configuration of your computer, generally without appropriately obtaining your consent first.
Unlike viruses and worms, spyware does not usually self-replicate. Like many recent viruses, however, spyware — by design — exploits infected computers for commercial gain. Typical tactics furthering this goal include delivery of unsolicited pop-up advertisements; theft of personal information (including financial information such as credit card numbers)

Anti Spyware
They can provide real time protection against the installation of spyware software on your computer. This type of spyware protection works the same way as that of anti-virus protection in that the anti-spyware software scans all incoming network data for spyware software and blocks any threats it comes across. E.g. Windows AntiSpyware, Spybot, Spy Sweeper and AVG Antispyware.

Anti Virus
A utility that searches a hard disk for viruses and removes the same if found. E.g.: Norton, McAfee, and AVG.

A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. It protects the computer from virus and other corrupted files to enter into the system.

HTML- Hyper Text Mark up Language
HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
SMTP - Simple mail transfer protocol
ISP – Internet Service Provider
Internet Browsers – Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape Navigator, Opera
Search Engines - Google, Yahoo etc.,
WWW—World Wide Web
BPO – Business Process Outsourcing
TCP/IP – Transmission control protocol/ Internet protocol
DSL – Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

Protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet.

Two types of internet connections:
Dial up connection

We can use either the phone or the internet (only one at a time).
Broadband (DSL and ADSL) connection.
We can use both the telephone and the internet simultaneously.
Short form for Internet Service Provider, a company that provides access to the Internet.
It is also called Internet Access Provider.

· Google is a search engine.
· Email client helps in viewing, sending and receiving mails. Example Microsoft outlook express.
· Operating system for networking is Windows NT.